SSD cache device to a software RAID5 using LVM2

Continuing our series LVM2 plus cache device:

  1. single hard disk with a SSD device SSD cache device to a hard disk drive using LVM, which uses SSD drive as a cache device to a single hard drive.
  2. Mirror LVM2 device with a SSD device for cache – SSD cache device to a software raid using LVM2 – software mirror across two devices with an additional SSD cache device over the mirror.

And now we show you how to do software RAID5 with SSD cache nvme using LVM2.

The goal:
Caching RAID5 consisting of three 8T hard drives with a single 1T NVME SSD drive. Caching reads, i.e. the write-through is enabled ().
Our setup:

  • 1 NVME SSD disk Samsung 1T. It will be used for writethrough cache device (you may use writeback, too, you do not care for the data if the cache device fails)!
  • 3 Hard disk drive 8T grouped in RAID5 for redundancy.

Keep on reading!

Technical details of Fedora Workstation 31 (Gnome GUI)

This article is for those of you who do not want to install a whole new operating system only to discover some technical details about the default installation like disk layout, packages included, software versions and so on. Here we are going to review in several sections what is like to have a default installation of Fedora Workstation 31 (Gnome) using a real not virtual machine!
The kernel is 5.3.7 it detects successfully the Threadripper 1950X AMD and the system is stable (we booted in UEFI mode).

Software

With Fedora 31 (Workstation Edition) you can have

  • linux kernel – 5.3.7 (5.3.7-301.fc31.x86_64)
  • Graphical User Interface
    • Xorg X server (Xwayland) – 1.20.5
    • GNOME (the GUI) – 3.34.1
    • K Desktop Environment – ships with https://spins.fedoraproject.org/en/kde/ Use this spin to install KDE.
  • System
    • linux-firmware – version: 20190923, release: 20191022-103.fc31.
    • QT – 5.12.5
    • libc – 2.30
    • GNU GCC – 9.2.1
    • OpenSSL – 1.1.1d
    • coreutils – 8.31
    • yum – Depricated and replaced with dnf
    • dnf – 4.2.9
    • cups – 2.2.12
    • rsyslog – 8.1907.0
    • NetworkManager – 1.20.4
  • Servers
    • Apache – 2.4.41
    • Nginx – 1.16.1
    • MySQL server – 8.0.17
    • MariaDB server – 10.3.17
    • PostgreSQL – 11.5
  • Programming
    • PHP – 7.3.10
    • python – 2.7.17 and also includes 3.7.4
    • perl – 5.30.0
    • ruby – 2.6.5
    • OpenJDK – 11.0.4.11 and also includes 1.8.0.222.b10
    • Go – 1.13.1
    • Rust – 1.38.0
    • Subversion – 1.12.2
    • Git – 2.23.0

Note: Not all of the above software comes installed by default. The versions above are valid for the intial release so in fact, these are the minimal versions you get with Fedora 31and installing and updating it after the initial date may update some of the above packages with new versions.
The installation procedure you can find here – Install Fedora Workstation 31 (Gnome GUI).
Installed packages are 1653 occupying 6.9G space:.

[root@srv ~]# dnf list installed|wc -l
1653
[root@srv ~]# df -h /
Filesystem                               Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/fedora_localhost--live-root   69G  6.9G   59G  11% /

Keep on reading!

Technical details of a default CentOS 8.0.1950 minimal installation

This article is for those of you who do not want to install a whole new operating system only to discover some technical details about the default installation like disk layout, packages included, software versions and so on. Here we are going to review in several sections what is like to have a default installation of CentOS 8.0.
Despite the kernel is 4.18 it detects successfully the new RYZEN/Threadripper AMD and the system is stable (we booted in UEFI mode).

Software

The CentOS 8.0 (8.0.1950) you can have

  • linux kernel – 4.18.0 (4.18.0-80.7.1.el8_0.x86_64)
  • Graphical User Interface
    • Xorg X server – 1.20.3
    • GNOME (the GUI) – 3.28.2
    • K Desktop Environment – NO, it’s depricated and not included in the release.
  • System
    • linux-firmware – version: 20190111, release: 92.gitd9fb2ee6.el8.
    • QT – 5.11.1
    • libc – 2.28
    • GNU GCC – 8.2.1
    • OpenSSL – 1.1.1
    • coreutils – 8.30
    • yum – Depricated and replaced with dnf
    • dnf – 4.0.9.2
    • cups – 2.2.6
    • rsyslog – 8.37.0
  • Servers
    • Apache – 2.4.37
    • Nginx – 1.14.1
    • MySQL server – 8.0.13
    • MariaDB server – 10.3.11
    • PostgreSQL – 10.6
  • Programming
    • PHP – 7.2.11
    • python – 2.7.15 and also includes 3.6.8
    • perl – 5.26.3
    • ruby – 2.5.3
    • OpenJDK – 11.0.4.11 and also includes 1.8.0.222.b10
    • Go – 1.11.5
    • Rust – 1.31.0
    • Subversion – 1.10.2
    • Git – 2.18.1

Note: Not all of the above software comes installed by default.
The installation procedure you can find here – How to do a network installation of CentOS 8 (8.0.1950) – minimal server installation Minimal install with “Standard” Addons selected.
Installed packages are 547 occupying 1.8G space:.

[root@srv ~]# dnf list installed|wc -l
547
[root@srv ~]# df -h /
Filesystem               Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/cl_srv-root   50G  1.8G   49G   4% /

Note: if you do not select “Standard Addon” the installation occupies less space – 1.6Gbytes and installs only 397 packages.
Keep on reading!

SSD cache device to a software raid using LVM2

Inspired by our article – SSD cache device to a hard disk drive using LVM, which uses SSD driver as a cache device to a single hard drive, we decided to make a new article, but this time using two hard drives in raid setup (in our case RAID1 for redundancy) and a single NVME SSD drive.
The goal:
Caching RAID1 consisting of two 8T hard drive with a single 1T NVME SSD drive. Caching reads and writes, i.e. the write-back is enabled.
Our setup:

  • 1 NVME SSD disk Samsung 1T. It will be used for writeback cache device (you may use writethrough, too, to maintain the redundancy of the whole storage)!
  • 2 Hard disk drive 8T grouped in RAID1 for redundancy.

STEP 1) Install lvm2 and enable the lvm2 service

Only this step is different on different Linux distributions. We included three of them:
Ubuntu 16+:

sudo apt update && apt upgrade -y
sudo apt install lvm2 -y
systemctl enable lvm2-lvmetad
systemctl start lvm2-lvmetad

CentOS 7:

yum update
yum install -y lvm2
systemctl enable lvm2-lvmetad
systemctl start lvm2-lvmetad

Gentoo:

emerge --sync
emerge -v sys-fs/lvm2
/etc/init.d/lvm start
rc-update add default lvm

Keep on reading!

Technical details of a default CentOS 6.10 minimal installation

This article is for those of you who do not want to install a whole new operating system only to discover some technical details about the default installation like, disk layout, packages included, software versions and so on. Here we are going to review in several sections what is like to have a default installation of CentOS 6.10.
Despite the old kernel, as you can see branch 2.6.x (2.6.32) it detects successfully the new RYZEN/Threadripper AMD and the system is stable (though we could not boot in UEFI mode!).

Software

The CentOS 6.10 you can have

  • Xorg X server – 1.17.4
  • GNOME (the GUI) – 2.28.2
  • K Desktop Environment – Workspace 4.3.4
  • linux kernel – 2.6.32 (2.6.32-754.el6)
  • linux-firmware – no version, multiple packages for the drivers
  • QT – 4.6.2
  • libc – 2.12
  • gnu gcc – 4.4.7
  • coreutils – 8.4
  • yum – 3.2.29
  • cups – 1.4.2
  • MySQL server – 5.1.73
  • PHP – 5.3.3
  • python – 2.6.6
  • perl – 5.10.1
  • ruby – 1.8.7.374
  • OpenJDK – 1.8.0.191.b12 and also includes 1.6.0.41 and 1.7.0.191

Note: Not all of the above software comes installed by default.
Installed packages are 268 occupying 717M space:

[root@srv ~]# yum list installed|wc -l
268
[root@srv ~]# df -h /
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/vg_srv-lv_root
                       50G  717M   46G   2% /

Keep on reading!

Technical details of a default Fedora 29 Workstation installation

This article is for those of you who do not want to install a how new operating system only to discover some technical details about the default installation like, disk layout, packages included, software versions and so on. Here we are going to review in several sections what is like to have a default installation of Fedora Workstation 29.

Software

The Fedora 29 Workstation you can have

  • Xorg X server – 1.20.1
  • GNOME (the GUI) – 3.30.1
  • linux kernel – 4.18.16
  • linux-firmware – 20180913 (87.git44d4fca9.fc29)
  • QT – 5.11.1
  • libc – 2.28
  • gnu gcc – 8.2.1 / installed by default
  • coreutils – 8.30
  • dnf – 4.0.4
  • cups – 2.2.8
  • MySQL server – 8.0.12
  • PHP – 7.2.11
  • Go Lang – 1.11
  • python2.7 – 2.7.15
  • python3 (default) – 3.7.0 / installed by default
  • perl – 5.28.0 / installed by default
  • ruby – 2.5.1
  • OpenJDK – “11-ea” 2018-09-25 / installed by default

Note: Not all of the above software comes installed by default.
Installed packages are 1613 occupying 5.9G space:

[root@localhost ~]# dnf list installed|wc -l
1613
[root@localhost ~]# df -h /
Filesystem               Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/fedora-root   49G  5.9G   41G  13% /

Keep on reading!