Software and technical details of Fedora Server 37 including cockpit screenshots

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System Overview

This article is for those of you who do not want to install a whole new operating system only to discover some technical details about the default installation like disk layout, packages included, software versions, and so on. Here we are going to review in several sections what is like to have a default installation of Fedora 37 Server using a real not virtual machine!
The kernel is 6.0.11 it detects successfully the Threadripper 1950X AMD and the system is stable (we booted in UEFI mode).
The installation procedure uses default options for all installation setups – Minimal network installation of Fedora 37 Server

Software

With Fedora Server 37 you can have

  • linux kernel – 6.0.11 (6.0.11-300.fc37.x86_64)
  • System
    • linux-firmware – version: 20221109, release: 20221109-144.fc37.
    • libc – 2.36 (2.36-8.fc37)
    • GNU GCC – 12.2.1 (12.2.1-4.fc37)
    • OpenSSL – 3.0.5 (1:3.0.5-3.fc37) and 1.1.1q (1:1.1.1q-2.fc37)
    • coreutils – 9.1 (9.1-6.fc37)
    • yum – Depricated and replaced with dnf
    • dnf – 4.14.0 (4.14.0-1.fc37)
    • rsyslog – 8.2204.0 (8.2204.0-3.fc37)
    • NetworkManager – 1.40.6 (1:1.40.6-1.fc37)
  • Servers
    • Apache – 2.4.54 (2.4.54-5.fc37)
    • Nginx – 1.22.1 (1:1.22.1-1.fc37)
    • MySQL server – 8.0.31 (8.0.31-1.fc37)
    • MariaDB server – 10.5.18 (3:10.5.18-1.fc37)
    • PostgreSQL – 14.3 (14.3-8.fc37)
  • Programming
    • PHP – 8.1.13 (8.1.13-1.fc37)
    • python – The default is 3.11.0 (3.11.0-1.fc37) and many more available – 3.10.8 (3.10.8-3.fc37), 3.12.0 (3.12.0~a2-1.fc37), 3.9.15 (3.9.15-3.fc37), 3.8.15 (3.8.15-2.fc37), 3.7.15 (3.7.15-2.fc37), 3.6.15 (3.6.15-14.fc37) and also includes the older 2.7.18 (2.7.18-25.fc37)
    • perl – 5.36.0 (4:5.36.0-492.fc37)
    • ruby – 3.1.3 (3.1.3-172.fc37)
    • OpenJDK – the latest 19 – 19.0.1.0.10 (1:19.0.1.0.10-2.rolling.fc37) and also includes 1:17.0.5.0.8 (1:17.0.5.0.8-1.fc37), 11.0.17.0.8 (1:11.0.17.0.8-1.fc37) and 1:1.8.0.352 (1:1.8.0.352.b08-2.fc37)
    • Go – 1.19.3 (1.19.3-2.fc37)
    • Rust – 1.65.0 (1.65.0-1.fc37)
    • llvm – the latest 15.0.4 (15.0.4-1.fc37), 14.0.0 (14.0.0-1.fc36) and the old 7.0.1 (7.0.1-7.fc36.4), 8.0.1 (8.0.1-3.fc37), 9.0.1 (9.0.1-15.fc35), 10.0.0 (10.0.0-13.fc35), 11.1.0 (11.1.0-6.fc35), 12.0.1 (12.0.1-2.fc35) and 13.0.1 (13.0.1-2.fc37)
    • Subversion – 1.14.2 (1.14.2-8.fc37)
    • Git – 2.38.1 (2.38.1-1.fc37)

Note: Not all of the above software comes installed by default. The versions above are valid as of December 2022, these are the minimum versions you get with Fedora Server 37 now, and updating it after the initial date may update some of the above packages with newer versions.

Installed packages are 679 occupying 1.8G space:. Note, this is Fedora Server Install, not minimal install. The server install includes the web console – cockpit version 254.

[root@srv ~]# dnf list installed|wc -l
679
[root@srv ~]# df -h /
Filesystem                      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/fedora_fedora-root   15G  1.8G   14G  12% /

Security

  1. Access control security policies – Selinux in Enforcing mode.
    [root@srv ~]# getenforce
    Enforcing
    
  2. Network firewall – Firewalld
    [root@srv ~]# firewall-cmd --list-all
    FedoraServer (active)
      target: default
      icmp-block-inversion: no
      interfaces: enp5s0
      sources: 
      services: cockpit dhcpv6-client ssh
      ports: 
      protocols: 
      forward: yes
      masquerade: no
      forward-ports: 
      source-ports: 
      icmp-blocks: 
      rich rules:
    

Storage

Default installation on a single disk, which has only free space on your disk or you reclaimed all the occupied space during installation. Install Fedora Server 35 needs at least 1.8G of free space for the default installation, so if you select a destination disk, which has less than 20G of space you should delete existing partitions to free up space or let Fedora Server 36 installer to do default installation asking you to reclaim the disk space. We used the whole disk for the installation.
By default Fedora Server 36 uses.

  1. xfs – file system
  2. lvm – root partition
  3. efi, boot, root are on separate partitions
  4. vfat – efi partition.
  5. zram – loop device, which is a RAM drive that uses compression

Fedora Server 36 installation:

  1. Disk layout

    [root@srv ~]# parted -l /dev/sda
    Model: ATA KINGSTON SNV425S (scsi)
    Disk /dev/sda: 128GB
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
    Partition Table: gpt
    Disk Flags: 
    
    Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name                  Flags
     1      1049kB  630MB   629MB   fat32        EFI System Partition  boot, esp
     2      630MB   1704MB  1074MB  xfs
     3      1704MB  128GB   126GB                                      lvm
    
    
  2. Mounted Partitions
    [root@srv ~]# df -h
    Filesystem               Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
    devtmpfs                 4.0M     0  4.0M   0% /dev
    tmpfs                     16G     0   16G   0% /dev/shm
    tmpfs                    6.3G  1.9M  6.3G   1% /run
    /dev/mapper/fedora-root   15G  1.8G   14G  12% /
    tmpfs                     16G     0   16G   0% /tmp
    /dev/sda2                960M  208M  753M  22% /boot
    /dev/sda1                599M  7.1M  592M   2% /boot/efi
    tmpfs                    3.2G     0  3.2G   0% /run/user/0
    tmpfs                    3.2G     0  3.2G   0% /run/user/1000
    

    Partitions in configuration:

    [root@srv ~]# cat /etc/fstab 
    
    #
    # /etc/fstab
    # Created by anaconda on Mon Dec  5 13:16:34 2022
    #
    # Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under '/dev/disk/'.
    # See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8) for more info.
    #
    # After editing this file, run 'systemctl daemon-reload' to update systemd
    # units generated from this file.
    #
    /dev/mapper/fedora-root /                       xfs     defaults        0 0
    UUID=dc198f0b-4bf0-46d4-ae66-a0c80552899a /boot                   xfs     defaults        0 0
    UUID=F2C4-8CA9          /boot/efi               vfat    umask=0077,shortname=winnt 0 2
    
  3. File system layout
    [root@srv ~]# ls -al /
    total 20
    dr-xr-xr-x.  18 root root  235 Dec  5 13:18 .
    dr-xr-xr-x.  18 root root  235 Dec  5 13:18 ..
    dr-xr-xr-x.   2 root root    6 Aug  9 13:27 afs
    lrwxrwxrwx.   1 root root    7 Aug  9 13:27 bin -> usr/bin
    dr-xr-xr-x.   5 root root 4096 Dec  5 13:21 boot
    drwxr-xr-x.  21 root root 4380 Dec  8 13:01 dev
    drwxr-xr-x. 103 root root 8192 Dec  5 13:24 etc
    drwxr-xr-x.   3 root root   20 Dec  5 13:21 home
    lrwxrwxrwx.   1 root root    7 Aug  9 13:27 lib -> usr/lib
    lrwxrwxrwx.   1 root root    9 Aug  9 13:27 lib64 -> usr/lib64
    drwxr-xr-x.   2 root root    6 Aug  9 13:27 media
    drwxr-xr-x.   2 root root    6 Aug  9 13:27 mnt
    drwxr-xr-x.   2 root root    6 Aug  9 13:27 opt
    dr-xr-xr-x. 464 root root    0 Dec  5 13:24 proc
    dr-xr-x---.   2 root root  114 Dec  5 13:22 root
    drwxr-xr-x.  36 root root 1060 Dec  5 13:24 run
    lrwxrwxrwx.   1 root root    8 Aug  9 13:27 sbin -> usr/sbin
    drwxr-xr-x.   2 root root    6 Aug  9 13:27 srv
    dr-xr-xr-x.  13 root root    0 Dec  5 13:24 sys
    drwxrwxrwt.  13 root root  260 Dec  8 10:11 tmp
    drwxr-xr-x.  12 root root  144 Dec  5 13:18 usr
    drwxr-xr-x.  20 root root 4096 Dec  5 13:24 var
    
  4. LVM configuration
    [root@srv ~]# lvmdiskscan -l
      WARNING: only considering LVM devices
      /dev/sda3      [    <117.66 GiB] LVM physical volume
      0 LVM physical volume whole disks
      1 LVM physical volume
    [root@srv ~]# pvscan
      PV /dev/sda3   VG fedora          lvm2 [117.65 GiB / 102.65 GiB free]
      Total: 1 [117.65 GiB] / in use: 1 [117.65 GiB] / in no VG: 0 [0   ]
    [root@srv ~]# pvs
      PV         VG     Fmt  Attr PSize   PFree  
      /dev/sda3  fedora lvm2 a--  117.65g 102.65g
    [root@srv ~]# pvdisplay -m
      --- Physical volume ---
      PV Name               /dev/sda3
      VG Name               fedora
      PV Size               <117.66 GiB / not usable 3.00 MiB
      Allocatable           yes 
      PE Size               4.00 MiB
      Total PE              30119
      Free PE               26279
      Allocated PE          3840
      PV UUID               Fowm7s-FxXr-0nm9-4ifG-N0WC-8geo-s7JleY
       
      --- Physical Segments ---
      Physical extent 0 to 3839:
        Logical volume      /dev/fedora/root
        Logical extents     0 to 3839
      Physical extent 3840 to 30118:
        FREE
       
    [root@srv ~]# vgs -o +devices,lv_path
      VG     #PV #LV #SN Attr   VSize   VFree   Devices      Path            
      fedora   1   1   0 wz--n- 117.65g 102.65g /dev/sda3(0) /dev/fedora/root
    [root@srv ~]# vgdisplay -v
      --- Volume group ---
      VG Name               fedora
      System ID             
      Format                lvm2
      Metadata Areas        1
      Metadata Sequence No  2
      VG Access             read/write
      VG Status             resizable
      MAX LV                0
      Cur LV                1
      Open LV               1
      Max PV                0
      Cur PV                1
      Act PV                1
      VG Size               117.65 GiB
      PE Size               4.00 MiB
      Total PE              30119
      Alloc PE / Size       3840 / 15.00 GiB
      Free  PE / Size       26279 / 102.65 GiB
      VG UUID               fxIlLq-jZnd-y9Xn-fCw9-4AnY-SjVv-FH4Hoa
       
      --- Logical volume ---
      LV Path                /dev/fedora/root
      LV Name                root
      VG Name                fedora
      LV UUID                bJ7OtT-0YhC-Ei8c-A1Do-3JPP-c8zl-90Ehw1
      LV Write Access        read/write
      LV Creation host, time srv, 2022-12-05 13:16:27 +0000
      LV Status              available
      # open                 1
      LV Size                15.00 GiB
      Current LE             3840
      Segments               1
      Allocation             inherit
      Read ahead sectors     auto
      - currently set to     256
      Block device           253:0
       
      --- Physical volumes ---
      PV Name               /dev/sda3     
      PV UUID               Fowm7s-FxXr-0nm9-4ifG-N0WC-8geo-s7JleY
      PV Status             allocatable
      Total PE / Free PE    30119 / 26279
    
    [root@srv ~]# lvs --segments
      LV   VG     Attr       #Str Type   SSize 
      root fedora -wi-ao----    1 linear 15.00g
    [root@srv ~]# lvdisplay -m
      --- Logical volume ---
      LV Path                /dev/fedora/root
      LV Name                root
      VG Name                fedora
      LV UUID                bJ7OtT-0YhC-Ei8c-A1Do-3JPP-c8zl-90Ehw1
      LV Write Access        read/write
      LV Creation host, time srv, 2022-12-05 13:16:27 +0000
      LV Status              available
      # open                 1
      LV Size                15.00 GiB
      Current LE             3840
      Segments               1
      Allocation             inherit
      Read ahead sectors     auto
      - currently set to     256
      Block device           253:0
       
      --- Segments ---
      Logical extents 0 to 3839:
        Type                linear
        Physical volume     /dev/sda3
        Physical extents    0 to 3839
    
    

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