Using Elasticsearch Rest API from Kibana web Dev Console to test ingest-pipeline

When using Elasticsearch with a Kibana instance, the user can take advantage of the Kibana web interface to test or query data from the Elasticsearch indexes really easy and fast with the REST APIs. Developing, testing or experimenting is easy in the Kibana Dev tools Console, where indexes could be created, deleted, populated and many more without the need of anything except a modern browser. The Elasticsearch REST API is here –, which points always to the current (latest) version of the Elasticseach version and the versions may be changed, for example, here is the link for the 7.17 branch. Using the Dev Tools Console is simpler even than the curl from the command-line, because the user does not need to add additional (curl or not) arguments and parameters for authentication, headers, metadata for data typing and so on. Just type the API commands and add data if they need. In fact, in the Elasticsearch site most examples use the REST API, so it is just as easy as copy and past in the console text area.

SCREENSHOT 1) Log in the Kibana instance and then navigate to the Dev tools on the left menu and then choose Console.

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Management Dev Tools Console

SCREENSHOT 2) The console shows the last state, which in this case is empty, because it is opened for the first time.

Write the REST API in the left and execute by click over the play button and expect the output in JSON format in the right.

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Dev tools Console overview

Keep on reading!

nginx with SELinux and ngx_http_lua_module – PANIC: unprotected error in call to Lua API

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runtime code generation failed restricted kernel

The CentOS 8 (CentOS Stream 9, too) might prevent to successfully execute a Lua code in NGINX web server with the modules like ngx_http_lua_module because of insufficient SELinux rules. By default, the web server is not allowed to execute programs that require memory addresses that are both executable and writable. Using Lua code may even crash with a core dump and restart of the NGIX worker process. The error logs contains information for the incident:

PANIC: unprotected error in call to Lua API (runtime code generation failed, restricted kernel?)

In fact, the error message hints what is going on – that the kernel prevents the execution of a code, which might be an addition limit enforced to this system.
Searching through the SELinux audit log shows the solution by enable the httpd_execmem SELinux boolean.

[root@srv ]# ausearch -c 'nginx' --raw | audit2allow

#============= httpd_t ==============

#!!!! This avc can be allowed using the boolean 'httpd_execmem'
allow httpd_t self:process execmem;

Apparently, the Lua code used needs a privileges to execute a code in the memory addresses (execmem). So when using the OpenResty ngx_http_lua_module, which is not distributed with the NGINX server, the server administrator should enable to true the SELinux boolean – httpd_execmem with:

setsebool -P httpd_execmem=1

The “-P” is going to make the value persistent over reboots.

Note, the official manual for the SELinux boolean. By enabling the httpd_execmem, several SELinux rules are applied, which may make the web server less secure, because the web server process is allowed to execute code in the memory.

– httpd_execmem

When enabled, this Boolean allows httpd to execute programs that require memory addresses that are both executable and writable. Enabling this Boolean is not recommended from a security standpoint as it reduces protection against buffer overflows, however certain modules and applications (such as Java and Mono applications) require this privilege.

The AVC (Access Vector Cache) message looks like:

type=AVC msg=audit(1699774004.724:59165857): avc:  denied  { execmem } for  pid=3872876 comm="nginx" scontext=system_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0 tcontext=system_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0 tclass=process permissive=0
type=SYSCALL msg=audit(1699774004.724:59165857): arch=c000003e syscall=10 success=no exit=-13 a0=7f399cd69000 a1=10000 a2=5 a3=38 items=0 ppid=884311 pid=3872876 auid=4294967295 uid=990 gid=987 euid=990 suid=990 fsuid=990 egid=987 sgid=987 fsgid=987 tty=(none) ses=4294967295 comm="nginx" exe="/usr/sbin/nginx" subj=system_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0 key=(null)ARCH=x86_64 SYSCALL=mprotect AUID="unset" UID="nginx" GID="nginx" EUID="nginx" SUID="nginx" FSUID="nginx" EGID="nginx" SGID="nginx" FSGID="nginx"
type=PROCTITLE msg=audit(1699774004.724:59165857): proctitle=6E67696E783A20776F726B65722070726F63657373

More on NGINX or SELinux

Pass-through the NVIDIA card in a LXC container

Pass-through the NVIDIA card to be used in the LXC container is simple enough and there are three simple rules to watch for:

  • mount bind the NVIDIA devices in /dev to the LXC container’s /dev
  • Allow cgroup access for the bound /dev devices.
  • Install the same version of the NVIDIA driver/software under the host and the LXC container or there will be multiple errors of the sort – version mismatch

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When using the LXC container pass-through, i.e. mount bind, the video card may be used simultaneously on the host and on all the LXC containers where it is mount bind. Multiple LXC containers share the video device(s).

This is a working LXC 4.0.12 configuration:

# Distribution configuration
lxc.include = /usr/share/lxc/config/common.conf
lxc.arch = x86_64

# Container specific configuration
lxc.rootfs.path = dir:/mnt/storage1/servers/gpu1u/rootfs = gpu1u

# Network configuration = macvlan = enp1s0f1 = bridge = up = eth0 = fe:77:3f:27:15:60

# Allow cgroup access
lxc.cgroup2.devices.allow = c 195:* rwm
lxc.cgroup2.devices.allow = c 234:* rwm
lxc.cgroup2.devices.allow = c 237:* rwm

# Pass through device files
lxc.mount.entry = /dev/nvidia0 dev/nvidia0 none bind,optional,create=file
lxc.mount.entry = /dev/nvidia1 dev/nvidia1 none bind,optional,create=file
lxc.mount.entry = /dev/nvidia2 dev/nvidia2 none bind,optional,create=file
lxc.mount.entry = /dev/nvidia3 dev/nvidia3 none bind,optional,create=file
lxc.mount.entry = /dev/nvidiactl dev/nvidiactl none bind,optional,create=file
lxc.mount.entry = /dev/nvidia-uvm dev/nvidia-uvm none bind,optional,create=file
lxc.mount.entry = /dev/nvidia-modeset dev/nvidia-modeset none bind,optional,create=file
lxc.mount.entry = /dev/nvidia-uvm-tools dev/nvidia-uvm-tools none bind,optional,create=file
lxc.mount.entry = /dev/nvidia-caps dev/nvidia-caps none bind,optional,create=dir

# Autostart = onboot = 1
lxc.start.delay = 10

Keep on reading!

Recover MySQL InnoDB Cluster and Dba.rebootClusterFromCompleteOutage: Argument #2: Invalid options: primary (ArgumentError)

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MySQL 8.0.28 version

Recent version of MySQL 8 implemented more options to the rebootClusterFromCompleteOutage function! Definitely check the link’s manual above and most of the handy second options are implemented in MySQL 8.0.30, so the user’s MySQL InnoDB Cluster crashed and if rebootClusterFromCompleteOutage should be used, but it outputs an error sort of:

 MySQL  db-cluster-1:33060+ ssl  JS > var cluster = dba.rebootClusterFromCompleteOutage()
Restoring the cluster 'mycluster1' from complete outage...

Dba.rebootClusterFromCompleteOutage: Target member is in state ERROR (RuntimeError)

And when trying to use the node, which was healthy before the crash with this function, there is an error, too:

 MySQL  db-cluster-1:33060+ ssl  JS > var cluster = dba.rebootClusterFromCompleteOutage("mycluster1", {primary: "db-cluster-1:3306"});
Dba.rebootClusterFromCompleteOutage: Argument #2: Invalid options: primary (ArgumentError)

So no cluster is available and the database and its data is inaccessible.
Indeed, the initial state of the cluster was really bad and before the restart, the two of three servers were missing or in bad state.

[root@db-cluster-1 ~]# mysqlsh
MySQL Shell 8.0.28

Copyright (c) 2016, 2022, Oracle and/or its affiliates.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates.
Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.

Type '\help' or '\?' for help; '\quit' to exit.
 MySQL  JS > \connect clusteradmin@db-cluster-1
Creating a session to 'clusteradmin@db-cluster-1'
Fetching schema names for autocompletion... Press ^C to stop.
Your MySQL connection id is 241708346 (X protocol)
Server version: 8.0.28 MySQL Community Server - GPL
No default schema selected; type \use <schema> to set one.
 MySQL  db-cluster-1:33060+ ssl  JS > var cluster = dba.getCluster()
 MySQL  db-cluster-1:33060+ ssl  JS > cluster.status()
    "clusterName": "mycluster1", 
    "defaultReplicaSet": {
        "name": "default", 
        "primary": "db-cluster-1:3306", 
        "ssl": "REQUIRED", 
        "status": "OK_NO_TOLERANCE", 
        "statusText": "Cluster is NOT tolerant to any failures. 2 members are not active.", 
        "topology": {
            "db-cluster-1:3306": {
                "address": "db-cluster-1:3306", 
                "memberRole": "PRIMARY", 
                "mode": "R/W", 
                "readReplicas": {}, 
                "replicationLag": null, 
                "role": "HA", 
                "status": "ONLINE", 
                "version": "8.0.28"
            "db-cluster-2:3306": {
                "address": "db-cluster-2:3306", 
                "instanceErrors": [
                    "NOTE: group_replication is stopped."
                "memberRole": "SECONDARY", 
                "memberState": "OFFLINE", 
                "mode": "R/O", 
                "readReplicas": {}, 
                "role": "HA", 
                "status": "(MISSING)", 
                "version": "8.0.28"
            "db-cluster-3:3306": {
                "address": "db-cluster-3:3306", 
                "instanceErrors": [
                    "ERROR: GR Recovery channel receiver stopped with an error: error connecting to master 'mysql_innodb_cluster_2324239842@db-cluster-1:3306' - retry-time: 60 retries: 1 message: Access denied for user 'mysql_innodb_cluster_2324239842'@'' (using password: YES) (1045) at 2023-09-19 04:37:00.076960", 
                    "ERROR: group_replication has stopped with an error."
                "memberRole": "SECONDARY", 
                "memberState": "ERROR", 
                "mode": "R/O", 
                "readReplicas": {}, 
                "role": "HA", 
                "status": "(MISSING)", 
                "version": "8.0.28"
        "topologyMode": "Single-Primary"
    "groupInformationSourceMember": "db-cluster-1:3306"

The problem here is the MySQL version is 8.0.28, but after MySQL 8.0.30 there are much more features, which can be used in the second argument of rebootClusterFromCompleteOutage including, which server should be considered primary therefore healthy. In fact, the updated rebootClusterFromCompleteOutage of MySQL 8.0.34 version even auto-detected the correct and healthy node and booted the MySQL InnoDB Cluster.
There were no problems with the update from MySQL 8.0.28 to MySQL 8.0.34 and after the MySQL 8.0.34 started, the rebootClusterFromCompleteOutage reconfigured and started the cluster with the right and healthy server auto-detected. In fact, it is safer to use the second argument and set the option, which is the healthy server “{primary: “db-cluster-1:3306″}”.
Keep on reading!

Edit with systemctl edit to add restart on fail to a service – nfs-ganesha

A quick tip how to edit a service unit file under a c system like CentOS Stream 9 or Ubuntu. The best way is to edit it with the the tool “systemctl edit [service_name]”, which will trigger the default editor to open a temporary copy of the systemd unit file with the service name used with it. The default editor in the console is controlled by “EDITOR” variable and may be changed prior using the systemctl edit. After a successful manipulation of the system unit file the new one will be installed and a reload of the systemd unit files will be triggered with “systemctl daemon-reload” automatically. Indeed, it is just a text edit of a text file, which will do several actions when using “systemctl edit” command.

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systemctl cat service

systemd options ro restart a service on fail are:


Here, the example is to add a restart-on-fail functionality to the nfs-ganesha service (NFS service). The systemctl edit may be used for many other changes to the systemd unit file under the console and it is the easiest and proper way.

SCREENSHOT 1) Use “systemctl edit” to edit a copy of the systemd override unit file.

do not insert anything at the end of the comments or below the second red line comments – “### Lines below this comment will be discarded”. This temporary override file includes a systemd unit file of the service, which is opened for editing. The result override.conf file will only include the added lines, no other comments shown below the second red line.

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systemctl edit opened

Keep on reading!

Change time zone for syslog messages in syslog-ng

When sending syslog packets to a remote server the time-zone of the current server may lead to problems because the syslog-ng program sets the time-zone with offset number according to the GMT. The remote server, especially if not a syslog-ng one, may interpret the offset as an offset to the UTC (Coordinated Universal Time), which leads times with an hour into the future.

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configuration in syslog-ng

Note, this whole problem is because of the Daylight saving time and there are almost 6 months when the GMT is not equal to the UTC and it is an hour ahead. Probably it is not a good idea to offset according to the GMT, because of the Daylight saving time during the summer, but this is on the syslog-ng development side.
There is one option time-zone(“[time_zone_string]”), which allows to change the time-zone of the destination packets. To avoid misinterprets of the date and time in the message packets the best way is to use it with UTC, so the local system will do the all necessary to convert the local time to UTC properly.
The configuration below uses time-zone(“[time_zone_string]”) from the current local time to UTC, because the current local time zone is EEST (Eastern European Summer Time), which 3 hours ahead of UTC during the summer period and 2 during winter (Eastern European Time – EET).

Relay the local web server logs from the local UDP port to the remote server using reliable TCP connection and changing the local time to UTC of the packets.

#NGINX - web logs
source udp_local {
    network(ip( port(514) transport("udp") so_rcvbuf(67108864) log_fetch_limit(1000) max-connections(1000) log-iw-size(1000000));

filter filter_nginx_access_log { program(nginx); };
destination d_tcp_syslog {
         port(10514) transport("tcp") disk-buffer(mem-buf-length(10000) mem-buf-size(128M) disk-buf-size(1024M) reliable(yes) dir("/var/lib/syslog-ng"))
log { source(udp_local); filter(filter_nginx_access_log); destination(d_tcp_syslog); };

the time_zone(“UTC”) in destination rule will ensure the packets have proper time related to the local server’s time in UTC and the mistake of misinterpreted date time is unlikely on a remote server.
More articles with syslog-ng

Rename the hostname in syslog-ng

At present, the syslog-ng (syslog-ng Open Source Edition) does not support to set the hostname of the server in the configuration. syslog-ng uses DNS system to resolve the system name or if it is explicitly switch off (with couple of options) it will use the IP. Sometimes the DNS name of the system may be not valid, for example in containers, or just for better naming purposes it is useful to have just a simple option to set the system’s hostname in the syslog packets.

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rewrite rule

The easiest and best way to change the system’s hostname in the packets is to use substitution rules with rewrite. In fact, the rewrite rule may operate on soft parts of the macros like MESSAGE, PROGRAM, HOST or user defined macros. The syslog message format and its “fields” could be seen in the RFC5424. It’s worth adding it is possible to replace the whole macro or just part of it.
Here is the configuration to set the system’s hostname:

#substitution rule
rewrite my_host { set("my-server-name", value("HOST")); };

#use the rule before the destination!!!
log { source(src); rewrite(my_host); destination(messages);};

The substitution rule should be used before the destination rule to take effect.

Here is a more complex example to set the system’s hostname only to certain packets:
Keep on reading!

how to skip mysqlbinlog reading error – ERROR: Found out of order GTID

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MariaDB select gtid_strict_mode

When trying to read the MariaDB binlog files, the reading may be interrupted with an error message, and the reading will stop:

ERROR: Found out of order GTID. Got 0-3-855835750755 after 0-1-855835750756

Some positions are shown but after 24 lines of 1236849 file, the mariadb-binlog / mysqlbinlog program interrupts with an error.

It turns out the problem is that the mariadb-binlog / mysqlbinlog reads the binlog files with GTID strict mode, because it is enabled by default! But the servers may have turned it off, so the binlog files are in the wrong format for the strict mode reading. The mode to read the binlog files should be the same as the MySQL / MariaDB server mode that created the binlog files.

root@srv binlog # mariadb-binlog  mysql-bin.52349 
/*!40019 SET @@session.max_delayed_threads=0*/;
# at 4
#230820 10:53:45 server id 1  end_log_pos 256 CRC32 0xffa88ac1        Start: binlog v 4, server v 11.0.2-MariaDB-1:11.0.2+maria~ubu2204-log created 230820 10:53:45
# at 256
#230820 10:53:45 server id 1  end_log_pos 379 CRC32 0xd434c2c6        Gtid list [0-5-76636859354,
# 0-4-847593757253,
# 0-2-857258567526,
# 0-3-855835750755,
# 0-1-855835750756,
# 1-4-8637504]
# at 379
#230820 10:53:45 server id 1  end_log_pos 423 CRC32 0xc23ef7af        Binlog checkpoint mysql-bin.52348
ERROR: Found out of order GTID. Got 0-3-855835750755 after 0-1-855835750756

Show the slave status to determine, which mode is in use:

root@srv binlog # mysql
mysql: Deprecated program name. It will be removed in a future release, use '/usr/bin/mariadb' instead
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 371408455
Server version: 11.0.2-MariaDB-1:11.0.2+maria~ubu2204-log binary distribution

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)]> select @@gtid_strict_mode;
| @@gtid_strict_mode |
|                  0 |
1 row in set (0.000 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]>

When the binlog files are generated with gtid_strict_mode = 0 the “–skip-gtid-strict-mode” option should be used with mariadb-binlog / mysqlbinlog to read the binlog files without errors. More on gtid_strict_mode for MariaDB –
Related errors GTID slave position – MariaDB/MySQL replication error – Error during XID COMMIT: failed to update GTID state in mysql.gtid_slave_pos. More on MariaDB on this site with tag mariadb tag.

QEMU full virtualization – CPU emulations (enable/disable CPU flags/instruction sets) of QEMU 8.0

Yet another update to this QEMU series after the versions 2.0.0QEMU full virtualization – CPU emulations (enable/disable CPU flags/instruction sets) of QEMU 2.0.0 and version 6.2QEMU full virtualization – CPU emulations (enable/disable CPU flags/instruction sets) of QEMU 6.2.0

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hot add CPU

The latest version of QEMU is 8.0.4 and it offers way more CPU flags and features! You can use QEMU with nearly native full virtualization. Here are some important tips for the guest CPU to consider when using QEMU directly (without any virtualization manager like virt-manager, libvirt and so on).

TIP 1) CPU emulation of x86

You can see what options are available for host emulation with:

root@srv ~ # qemu-system-x86_64 -cpu help
Available CPUs:
x86 486                   (alias configured by machine type)
x86 486-v1                
x86 Broadwell             (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Broadwell-IBRS        (alias of Broadwell-v3)
x86 Broadwell-noTSX       (alias of Broadwell-v2)
x86 Broadwell-noTSX-IBRS  (alias of Broadwell-v4)
x86 Broadwell-v1          Intel Core Processor (Broadwell)
x86 Broadwell-v2          Intel Core Processor (Broadwell, no TSX)
x86 Broadwell-v3          Intel Core Processor (Broadwell, IBRS)
x86 Broadwell-v4          Intel Core Processor (Broadwell, no TSX, IBRS)
x86 Cascadelake-Server    (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Cascadelake-Server-noTSX  (alias of Cascadelake-Server-v3)
x86 Cascadelake-Server-v1  Intel Xeon Processor (Cascadelake)
x86 Cascadelake-Server-v2  Intel Xeon Processor (Cascadelake) [ARCH_CAPABILITIES]
x86 Cascadelake-Server-v3  Intel Xeon Processor (Cascadelake) [ARCH_CAPABILITIES, no TSX]
x86 Cascadelake-Server-v4  Intel Xeon Processor (Cascadelake) [ARCH_CAPABILITIES, no TSX]
x86 Cascadelake-Server-v5  Intel Xeon Processor (Cascadelake) [ARCH_CAPABILITIES, EPT switching, XSAVES, no TSX]
x86 Conroe                (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Conroe-v1             Intel Celeron_4x0 (Conroe/Merom Class Core 2)
x86 Cooperlake            (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Cooperlake-v1         Intel Xeon Processor (Cooperlake)
x86 Cooperlake-v2         Intel Xeon Processor (Cooperlake) [XSAVES]
x86 Denverton             (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Denverton-v1          Intel Atom Processor (Denverton)
x86 Denverton-v2          Intel Atom Processor (Denverton) [no MPX, no MONITOR]
x86 Denverton-v3          Intel Atom Processor (Denverton) [XSAVES, no MPX, no MONITOR]
x86 Dhyana                (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Dhyana-v1             Hygon Dhyana Processor
x86 Dhyana-v2             Hygon Dhyana Processor [XSAVES]
x86 EPYC                  (alias configured by machine type)
x86 EPYC-IBPB             (alias of EPYC-v2)
x86 EPYC-Milan            (alias configured by machine type)
x86 EPYC-Milan-v1         AMD EPYC-Milan Processor
x86 EPYC-Rome             (alias configured by machine type)
x86 EPYC-Rome-v1          AMD EPYC-Rome Processor
x86 EPYC-Rome-v2          AMD EPYC-Rome Processor
x86 EPYC-v1               AMD EPYC Processor
x86 EPYC-v2               AMD EPYC Processor (with IBPB)
x86 EPYC-v3               AMD EPYC Processor
x86 Haswell               (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Haswell-IBRS          (alias of Haswell-v3)
x86 Haswell-noTSX         (alias of Haswell-v2)
x86 Haswell-noTSX-IBRS    (alias of Haswell-v4)
x86 Haswell-v1            Intel Core Processor (Haswell)
x86 Haswell-v2            Intel Core Processor (Haswell, no TSX)
x86 Haswell-v3            Intel Core Processor (Haswell, IBRS)
x86 Haswell-v4            Intel Core Processor (Haswell, no TSX, IBRS)
x86 Icelake-Server        (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Icelake-Server-noTSX  (alias of Icelake-Server-v2)
x86 Icelake-Server-v1     Intel Xeon Processor (Icelake)
x86 Icelake-Server-v2     Intel Xeon Processor (Icelake) [no TSX]
x86 Icelake-Server-v3     Intel Xeon Processor (Icelake)
x86 Icelake-Server-v4     Intel Xeon Processor (Icelake)
x86 Icelake-Server-v5     Intel Xeon Processor (Icelake) [XSAVES]
x86 Icelake-Server-v6     Intel Xeon Processor (Icelake) [5-level EPT]
x86 IvyBridge             (alias configured by machine type)
x86 IvyBridge-IBRS        (alias of IvyBridge-v2)
x86 IvyBridge-v1          Intel Xeon E3-12xx v2 (Ivy Bridge)
x86 IvyBridge-v2          Intel Xeon E3-12xx v2 (Ivy Bridge, IBRS)
x86 KnightsMill           (alias configured by machine type)
x86 KnightsMill-v1        Intel Xeon Phi Processor (Knights Mill)
x86 Nehalem               (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Nehalem-IBRS          (alias of Nehalem-v2)
x86 Nehalem-v1            Intel Core i7 9xx (Nehalem Class Core i7)
x86 Nehalem-v2            Intel Core i7 9xx (Nehalem Core i7, IBRS update)
x86 Opteron_G1            (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Opteron_G1-v1         AMD Opteron 240 (Gen 1 Class Opteron)
x86 Opteron_G2            (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Opteron_G2-v1         AMD Opteron 22xx (Gen 2 Class Opteron)
x86 Opteron_G3            (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Opteron_G3-v1         AMD Opteron 23xx (Gen 3 Class Opteron)
x86 Opteron_G4            (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Opteron_G4-v1         AMD Opteron 62xx class CPU
x86 Opteron_G5            (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Opteron_G5-v1         AMD Opteron 63xx class CPU
x86 Penryn                (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Penryn-v1             Intel Core 2 Duo P9xxx (Penryn Class Core 2)
x86 SandyBridge           (alias configured by machine type)
x86 SandyBridge-IBRS      (alias of SandyBridge-v2)
x86 SandyBridge-v1        Intel Xeon E312xx (Sandy Bridge)
x86 SandyBridge-v2        Intel Xeon E312xx (Sandy Bridge, IBRS update)
x86 SapphireRapids        (alias configured by machine type)
x86 SapphireRapids-v1     Intel Xeon Processor (SapphireRapids)
x86 Skylake-Client        (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Skylake-Client-IBRS   (alias of Skylake-Client-v2)
x86 Skylake-Client-noTSX-IBRS  (alias of Skylake-Client-v3)
x86 Skylake-Client-v1     Intel Core Processor (Skylake)
x86 Skylake-Client-v2     Intel Core Processor (Skylake, IBRS)
x86 Skylake-Client-v3     Intel Core Processor (Skylake, IBRS, no TSX)
x86 Skylake-Client-v4     Intel Core Processor (Skylake, IBRS, no TSX) [IBRS, XSAVES, no TSX]
x86 Skylake-Server        (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Skylake-Server-IBRS   (alias of Skylake-Server-v2)
x86 Skylake-Server-noTSX-IBRS  (alias of Skylake-Server-v3)
x86 Skylake-Server-v1     Intel Xeon Processor (Skylake)
x86 Skylake-Server-v2     Intel Xeon Processor (Skylake, IBRS)
x86 Skylake-Server-v3     Intel Xeon Processor (Skylake, IBRS, no TSX)
x86 Skylake-Server-v4     Intel Xeon Processor (Skylake, IBRS, no TSX)
x86 Skylake-Server-v5     Intel Xeon Processor (Skylake, IBRS, no TSX) [IBRS, XSAVES, EPT switching, no TSX]
x86 Snowridge             (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Snowridge-v1          Intel Atom Processor (SnowRidge)
x86 Snowridge-v2          Intel Atom Processor (Snowridge, no MPX)
x86 Snowridge-v3          Intel Atom Processor (Snowridge, no MPX) [XSAVES, no MPX]
x86 Snowridge-v4          Intel Atom Processor (Snowridge, no MPX) [no split lock detect, no core-capability]
x86 Westmere              (alias configured by machine type)
x86 Westmere-IBRS         (alias of Westmere-v2)
x86 Westmere-v1           Westmere E56xx/L56xx/X56xx (Nehalem-C)
x86 Westmere-v2           Westmere E56xx/L56xx/X56xx (IBRS update)
x86 athlon                (alias configured by machine type)
x86 athlon-v1             QEMU Virtual CPU version 2.5+
x86 core2duo              (alias configured by machine type)
x86 core2duo-v1           Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo CPU     T7700  @ 2.40GHz
x86 coreduo               (alias configured by machine type)
x86 coreduo-v1            Genuine Intel(R) CPU           T2600  @ 2.16GHz
x86 kvm32                 (alias configured by machine type)
x86 kvm32-v1              Common 32-bit KVM processor
x86 kvm64                 (alias configured by machine type)
x86 kvm64-v1              Common KVM processor
x86 n270                  (alias configured by machine type)
x86 n270-v1               Intel(R) Atom(TM) CPU N270   @ 1.60GHz
x86 pentium               (alias configured by machine type)
x86 pentium-v1            
x86 pentium2              (alias configured by machine type)
x86 pentium2-v1           
x86 pentium3              (alias configured by machine type)
x86 pentium3-v1           
x86 phenom                (alias configured by machine type)
x86 phenom-v1             AMD Phenom(tm) 9550 Quad-Core Processor
x86 qemu32                (alias configured by machine type)
x86 qemu32-v1             QEMU Virtual CPU version 2.5+
x86 qemu64                (alias configured by machine type)
x86 qemu64-v1             QEMU Virtual CPU version 2.5+
x86 base                  base CPU model type with no features enabled
x86 host                  processor with all supported host features 
x86 max                   Enables all features supported by the accelerator in the current host

Recognized CPUID flags:
  3dnow 3dnowext 3dnowprefetch abm ace2 ace2-en acpi adx aes amd-no-ssb
  amd-ssbd amd-stibp amx-bf16 amx-int8 amx-tile apic arat arch-capabilities
  arch-lbr avic avx avx-vnni avx2 avx512-4fmaps avx512-4vnniw avx512-bf16
  avx512-fp16 avx512-vp2intersect avx512-vpopcntdq avx512bitalg avx512bw
  avx512cd avx512dq avx512er avx512f avx512ifma avx512pf avx512vbmi
  avx512vbmi2 avx512vl avx512vnni bmi1 bmi2 bus-lock-detect cid cldemote
  clflush clflushopt clwb clzero cmov cmp-legacy core-capability cr8legacy
  cx16 cx8 dca de decodeassists ds ds-cpl dtes64 erms est extapic f16c
  flushbyasid fma fma4 fpu fsgsbase fsrc fsrm fsrs full-width-write fxsr
  fxsr-opt fzrm gfni hle ht hypervisor ia64 ibpb ibrs ibrs-all ibs intel-pt
  intel-pt-lip invpcid invtsc kvm-asyncpf kvm-asyncpf-int
  kvm-hint-dedicated kvm-mmu kvm-msi-ext-dest-id kvm-nopiodelay
  kvm-poll-control kvm-pv-eoi kvm-pv-ipi kvm-pv-sched-yield
  kvm-pv-tlb-flush kvm-pv-unhalt kvm-steal-time kvmclock kvmclock
  kvmclock-stable-bit la57 lahf-lm lbrv lm lwp mca mce md-clear mds-no
  misalignsse mmx mmxext monitor movbe movdir64b movdiri mpx msr mtrr
  nodeid-msr npt nrip-save nx osvw pae pat pause-filter pbe pcid pclmulqdq
  pcommit pdcm pdpe1gb perfctr-core perfctr-nb pfthreshold pge phe phe-en
  pks pku pmm pmm-en pn pni popcnt pschange-mc-no pse pse36 rdctl-no rdpid
  rdrand rdseed rdtscp rsba rtm sep serialize sgx sgx-aex-notify sgx-debug
  sgx-edeccssa sgx-exinfo sgx-kss sgx-mode64 sgx-provisionkey sgx-tokenkey
  sgx1 sgx2 sgxlc sha-ni skinit skip-l1dfl-vmentry smap smep smx spec-ctrl
  split-lock-detect ss ssb-no ssbd sse sse2 sse4.1 sse4.2 sse4a ssse3 stibp
  svm svm-lock svme-addr-chk syscall taa-no tbm tce tm tm2 topoext tsc
  tsc-adjust tsc-deadline tsc-scale tsx-ctrl tsx-ldtrk umip v-vmsave-vmload
  vaes vgif virt-ssbd vmcb-clean vme vmx vmx-activity-hlt
  vmx-activity-shutdown vmx-activity-wait-sipi vmx-apicv-register
  vmx-apicv-vid vmx-apicv-x2apic vmx-apicv-xapic vmx-cr3-load-noexit
  vmx-cr3-store-noexit vmx-cr8-load-exit vmx-cr8-store-exit vmx-desc-exit
  vmx-encls-exit vmx-entry-ia32e-mode vmx-entry-load-bndcfgs
  vmx-entry-load-efer vmx-entry-load-pat vmx-entry-load-perf-global-ctrl
  vmx-entry-load-pkrs vmx-entry-load-rtit-ctl vmx-entry-noload-debugctl
  vmx-ept vmx-ept-1gb vmx-ept-2mb vmx-ept-advanced-exitinfo
  vmx-ept-execonly vmx-eptad vmx-eptp-switching vmx-exit-ack-intr
  vmx-exit-clear-bndcfgs vmx-exit-clear-rtit-ctl vmx-exit-load-efer
  vmx-exit-load-pat vmx-exit-load-perf-global-ctrl vmx-exit-load-pkrs
  vmx-exit-nosave-debugctl vmx-exit-save-efer vmx-exit-save-pat
  vmx-exit-save-preemption-timer vmx-flexpriority vmx-hlt-exit vmx-ins-outs
  vmx-intr-exit vmx-invept vmx-invept-all-context vmx-invept-single-context
  vmx-invept-single-context vmx-invept-single-context-noglobals
  vmx-invlpg-exit vmx-invpcid-exit vmx-invvpid vmx-invvpid-all-context
  vmx-invvpid-single-addr vmx-io-bitmap vmx-io-exit vmx-monitor-exit
  vmx-movdr-exit vmx-msr-bitmap vmx-mtf vmx-mwait-exit vmx-nmi-exit
  vmx-page-walk-4 vmx-page-walk-5 vmx-pause-exit vmx-ple vmx-pml
  vmx-posted-intr vmx-preemption-timer vmx-rdpmc-exit vmx-rdrand-exit
  vmx-rdseed-exit vmx-rdtsc-exit vmx-rdtscp-exit vmx-secondary-ctls
  vmx-shadow-vmcs vmx-store-lma vmx-true-ctls vmx-tsc-offset
  vmx-tsc-scaling vmx-unrestricted-guest vmx-vintr-pending vmx-vmfunc
  vmx-vmwrite-vmexit-fields vmx-vnmi vmx-vnmi-pending vmx-vpid
  vmx-wbinvd-exit vmx-xsaves vmx-zero-len-inject vpclmulqdq waitpkg
  wbnoinvd wdt x2apic xcrypt xcrypt-en xfd xgetbv1 xop xsave xsavec
  xsaveerptr xsaveopt xsaves xstore xstore-en xtpr

Keep on reading!

run Grafana in a docker/podman container

This article is a follow up after the Run podman/docker InfluxDB 1.8 container to collect statistics from collectd, where the time series database InfluxDB stores data and by using Grafana in another container it is easy and lightweight enough to visualize the collected data.
Containerizing the Grafana service is simple enough with docker/podman, but there are several tips and steps to consider before doing it. These steps will significantly ease the maintainer’s life, making upgrading, moving to another server, or backup important data really easy – just stop and start another container with the same options except name and container version.

main menu
podman run command grafana container

Here are the important points to mind when running Grafana 9 in a docker/podman container:
Keep on reading!