Change the LXC container root folder under CentOS with SELinux

The default LXC container folder in CentOS (all versions – 7,8, Stream 8 and Stream 9) is /var/lib/lxc, which may resides in the root partition. When changing the lxc.rootfs or (the main directory /var/lib/lxc) to another place, the containers may still work without any additional SELinux permissions. Some tools like lxc-attach would definitely stop working with permission errors – lxc_attach_run_shell: 1333 Permission denied – failed to exec shell. This article will show how to use lxc-create and SELinux commands to properly change the LXC container’s rootfs.
For detailed information how to create a LXC container check out – Run LXC CentOS Stream 9 container with bridged network under CentOS Stream 9 or Run LXC Ubuntu 22.04 LTS container with bridged network under CentOS Stream 9.

Create LXC container with not default path

  • Change the rootfs only. To change only the LXC container root filesystem location use “–dir=” lxc-create option:
    lxc-create --template download -n mycontainer2 --dir=/mnt/storage/servers/mycontainer2 -- --dist centos --release 9-Stream --arch amd64
    

    It will place the files under /mnt/storage/servers/mycontainer2, but the configuration will still be located in /var/lib/lxc/mycontainer2/.

    [root@srv ~]# ls -altr /var/lib/lxc/mycontainer2/
    total 16
    drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root 4096 Oct 14 13:42 ..
    drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 Oct 14 13:42 rootfs
    -rw-r-----. 1 root root  775 Oct 14 13:42 config
    drwxrwx---. 3 root root 4096 Oct 14 13:42 .
    [root@srv ~]# ls -altr /var/lib/lxc/mycontainer2/rootfs/
    total 8
    drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 Oct 14 13:42 .
    drwxrwx---. 3 root root 4096 Oct 14 13:42 ..
    [root@srv ~]# ls -altr /mnt/storage/servers/mycontainer2/
    total 76
    drwxrwxrwt.  2 root root 4096 Aug  9  2021 tmp
    drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root 4096 Aug  9  2021 srv
    lrwxrwxrwx.  1 root root    8 Aug  9  2021 sbin -> usr/sbin
    drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root 4096 Aug  9  2021 opt
    drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root 4096 Aug  9  2021 mnt
    drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root 4096 Aug  9  2021 media
    lrwxrwxrwx.  1 root root    9 Aug  9  2021 lib64 -> usr/lib64
    lrwxrwxrwx.  1 root root    7 Aug  9  2021 lib -> usr/lib
    drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root 4096 Aug  9  2021 home
    dr-xr-xr-x.  2 root root 4096 Aug  9  2021 boot
    lrwxrwxrwx.  1 root root    7 Aug  9  2021 bin -> usr/bin
    dr-xr-xr-x.  2 root root 4096 Aug  9  2021 afs
    dr-xr-xr-x.  2 root root 4096 Oct 14 07:11 sys
    dr-xr-xr-x.  2 root root 4096 Oct 14 07:11 proc
    drwxr-xr-x. 12 root root 4096 Oct 14 07:11 usr
    drwxr-xr-x.  8 root root 4096 Oct 14 07:11 run
    drwxr-xr-x. 18 root root 4096 Oct 14 07:11 var
    dr-xr-x---.  2 root root 4096 Oct 14 07:12 root
    drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root 4096 Oct 14 07:12 selinux
    drwxr-xr-x. 19 root root 4096 Oct 14 07:15 .
    drwxr-xr-x.  4 root root 4096 Oct 14 13:41 ..
    drwxr-xr-x.  3 root root 4096 Oct 14 13:42 dev
    drwxr-xr-x. 63 root root 4096 Oct 14 13:42 etc
    
  • Change the LXC container path – the folder containing the configuration and the container’s root filesystems use “-P”
    lxc-create -P /mnt/storage/servers/ --template download -n mycontainer -- --dist centos --release 9-Stream --arch amd64
    

    All the LXC container configuration and root filesystem will be placed under /mnt/storage/servers/[container_name], which in the example above is /mnt/storage/servers/mycontainer

    [root@srv ~]# ls -al /mnt/storage/servers/mycontainer
    total 16
    drwxrwx---.  3 root root 4096 Oct 14 13:38 .
    drwxr-xr-x.  4 root root 4096 Oct 14 13:41 ..
    -rw-r-----.  1 root root  780 Oct 14 13:38 config
    drwxr-xr-x. 19 root root 4096 Oct 14 07:15 rootfs
    

It is better to use the “-P” and to change the LXC container location than only the filesystem path. In this case, a good practice is to make a symbolic link in /var/lib/lxc/[container-name] to the new location:

ln -s /mnt/storage/servers/mycontainer /var/lib/lxc/mycontainer

So all LXC tools will continue to work without explicitly adding an option for the new path of this container.

Change the SELinux file context to be container_var_lib_t of the LXC root filesystem

Add the file context container_var_lib_t to the container’s root filesystem path and change the SELinux labels.
First, verify all the needed tools are installed:

dnf install -y policycoreutils-python-utils container-selinux

Then, add a new file context to the path /mnt/storage/servers/mycontainer and run the restorecon to change the SELinux labels to container_var_lib_t

semanage fcontext -a -t container_var_lib_t '/mnt/storage/servers/mycontainer(/.*)?'
restorecon -Rv /mnt/storage/servers/mycontainer

The file context may be shown with:

[root@srv ~]# ls -alZ /mnt/storage/servers/mycontainer
total 16
drwxrwx---.  3 root root unconfined_u:object_r:container_var_lib_t:s0 4096 Oct 14 13:38 .
drwxr-xr-x.  4 root root unconfined_u:object_r:mnt_t:s0               4096 Oct 14 13:41 ..
-rw-r-----.  1 root root unconfined_u:object_r:container_var_lib_t:s0  780 Oct 14 13:38 config
drwxr-xr-x. 19 root root unconfined_u:object_r:container_var_lib_t:s0 4096 Oct 14 07:15 rootfs

Failing to set the proper SELinux labels may result to errors such as lxc_attach_run_shell: 1333 Permission denied – failed to exec shell

DNF install and conflicting requests – nothing provides module(platform:el8) needed by module

Here there are broken modules in the DNF package manager. It was a result of an upgrade, but it may occur if some unofficial repositories mess up with them:
On every DNF command, there are multiple problem-reporting lines about conflicts in different DNF modules.

[root@srv ~]# dnf info epel-release
Last metadata expiration check: 0:13:42 ago on Tue Oct 11 13:11:51 2022.
Modular dependency problems:

 Problem 1: conflicting requests
  - nothing provides module(platform:el8) needed by module httpd:2.4:8050020211112043353:b4937e53.x86_64
 Problem 2: conflicting requests
  - nothing provides module(platform:el8) needed by module nginx:1.14:8000020191007205758:55190bc5.x86_64
 Problem 3: conflicting requests
  - nothing provides module(platform:el8) needed by module nodejs:10:8030020210304194401:30b713e6.x86_64
 Problem 4: conflicting requests
  - nothing provides module(platform:el8) needed by module perl:5.26:8000020190628020724:55190bc5.x86_64
 Problem 5: conflicting requests
  - nothing provides module(platform:el8) needed by module perl-IO-Socket-SSL:2.066:8030020201222215140:1e4bbb35.x86_64
 Problem 6: conflicting requests
  - nothing provides module(platform:el8) needed by module perl-libwww-perl:6.34:8030020201223164340:b967a9a2.x86_64
 Problem 7: conflicting requests
  - nothing provides module(platform:el8) needed by module php:7.2:8020020200507003613:2c7ca891.x86_64
 Problem 8: conflicting requests
  - nothing provides module(platform:el8) needed by module satellite-5-client:1.0:8010020191114035551:cdc1202b.x86_64
 Problem 9: conflicting requests
  - nothing provides module(platform:el8) needed by module virt:rhel:8050020211221192853:b4937e53.x86_64
Installed Packages
Name         : epel-release
Version      : 9
Release      : 4.el9
Architecture : noarch
Size         : 25 k
Source       : epel-release-9-4.el9.src.rpm
Repository   : @System
From repo    : epel
Summary      : Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux repository configuration
URL          : http://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel
License      : GPLv2
Description  : This package contains the Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL) repository
             : GPG key as well as configuration for yum.

The DNF package manager offers modules to group software. Each module may have one or multiple streams, representing the major version of the software it groups in a single entity. As can be seen above from the DNF output, the module name is httpd and the stream is 2.4. It is clear the module httpd is responsible for the installation of Apache Web server. More on the subject here – https://docs.fedoraproject.org/en-US/modularity/using-modules/

To fix the problems above and clear the errors just reset the modules to their initial default state with:

dnf module reset httpd

Keep on reading!

How To Install Linux, Apache, MySQL (MariaDB), PHP-FPM (LAMP) Stack on CentOS Stream 9

main menu
PHP Version 8.0.20

This article describes how to install a Web server with application back-end PHP and database back-end MySQL using MariaDB. In continuing the same topic, but with different software from the previous article – How To Install Linux, Nginx, MySQL (MariaDB), PHP-FPM (LEMP) Stack on CentOS Stream 9, where the Web server is Nginx with application back-end PHP-FPM, which is a sort of CGI (FastCGI). In this article, the Web server is Apache and the application is again PHP-FPM, because since the CentOS 8 the Apache mod_php is deprecated.
All the software installed throughout this article is from the CentOS Stream 9 official repositories including the EPEL repository. The machine is installed with a minimal installation of CentOS Stream 9 and there is a how-to here – Network installation of CentOS Stream 9 (20220606.0) – minimal server installation.
Here are the steps to perform:

  1. Install, configure and start the database MariaDB.
  2. Install, configure and start the PHP-FPM and PHP cli.
  3. Install, configure and start the Web server Apache 2.x.
  4. Configure the system – firewall and SELinux.
  5. Test the installation with a phpMyAdmin installation.
  6. Bonus – Apache HTTPS with SSL certificate – self-signed and letsencrypt.

STEP 1) Install, configure and start the database MariaDB.

First, install the MariaDB server by:

dnf install -y mariadb-server

To configure the MariaDB server, the main file is /etc/my.cnf, which just includes all files under the folder /etc/my.cnf.d/

[root@srv ~]# cat /etc/my.cnf
#
# This group is read both both by the client and the server
# use it for options that affect everything
#
[client-server]

#
# include all files from the config directory
#
!includedir /etc/my.cnf.d

[root@srv ~]# ls -altr /etc/my.cnf.d/
total 32
-rw-r--r--.  1 root root  295 Mar 25  2022 client.cnf
-rw-r--r--.  1 root root  120 May 18 07:55 spider.cnf
-rw-r--r--.  1 root root  232 May 18 07:55 mysql-clients.cnf
-rw-r--r--.  1 root root  763 May 18 07:55 enable_encryption.preset
-rw-r--r--.  1 root root 1458 Jun 13 13:24 mariadb-server.cnf
-rw-r--r--.  1 root root   42 Jun 13 13:29 auth_gssapi.cnf
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root 4096 Oct  6 06:34 .
drwxr-xr-x. 81 root root 4096 Oct  6 06:34 ..

The most important file for the MariaDB server is /etc/my.cnf.d/mariadb-server.cnf, where all the server options are included. Under section “[mysqld]” add options to tune the MariaDB server. Supported options could be found here: https://mariadb.com/kb/en/mysqld-options/
Add the following options under “[mysqld]” in /etc/my.cnf.d/mariadb-server.cnf
Keep on reading!

How To Install Linux, Nginx, MySQL (MariaDB), PHP-FPM (LEMP) Stack on CentOS Stream 9

main menu
dnf mariadb

This article presents how to install a Web server with application back-end PHP and database back-end MySQL using MariaDB. All the software installed throughout this article is from the CentOS Stream 9 official repositories including the EPEL repository. The machine is installed with a minimal installation of CentOS Stream 9 and there is a how-to here – Network installation of CentOS Stream 9 (20220606.0) – minimal server installation.
Here are the steps to perform:

  1. Install, configure and start the database MariaDB.
  2. Install, configure and start the PHP-FPM and PHP cli.
  3. Install, configure and start the Web server Nginx.
  4. Configure the system – firewall and SELinux.
  5. Test the installation with a phpMyAdmin installation.
  6. Bonus – Nginx HTTPS with SSL certificate – self-signed and letsencrypt.

STEP 1) Install, configure and start the database MariaDB.

First, install the MariaDB server by:

dnf install -y mariadb-server

To configure the MariaDB server, the main file is /etc/my.cnf, which just includes all files under the folder /etc/my.cnf.d/

[root@srv ~]# cat /etc/my.cnf
#
# This group is read both both by the client and the server
# use it for options that affect everything
#
[client-server]

#
# include all files from the config directory
#
!includedir /etc/my.cnf.d

[root@srv ~]# ls -altr /etc/my.cnf.d/
total 32
-rw-r--r--.  1 root root  295 Mar 25  2022 client.cnf
-rw-r--r--.  1 root root  120 May 18 07:55 spider.cnf
-rw-r--r--.  1 root root  232 May 18 07:55 mysql-clients.cnf
-rw-r--r--.  1 root root  763 May 18 07:55 enable_encryption.preset
-rw-r--r--.  1 root root 1458 Jun 13 13:24 mariadb-server.cnf
-rw-r--r--.  1 root root   42 Jun 13 13:29 auth_gssapi.cnf
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root root 4096 Oct  6 06:34 .
drwxr-xr-x. 81 root root 4096 Oct  6 06:34 ..

The most important file for the MariaDB server is /etc/my.cnf.d/mariadb-server.cnf, where all the server options are included. Under section “[mysqld]” add options to tune the MariaDB server. Supported options could be found here: https://mariadb.com/kb/en/mysqld-options/
Add the following options under “[mysqld]” in /etc/my.cnf.d/mariadb-server.cnf
Keep on reading!

How to upgrade to CentOS Stream 9 from CentOS Stream 8

This article will show how to update to CentOS Stream 9 from CentOS Stream 8.

main menu
grub entries

If only official repositories are used it is fairly easy to upgrade to the new rolling based CentOS Stream 9 release, which follows the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9. Using unofficial or users’ repositories CentOS Stream 8 may lead to unstable system or break user’s system following this tutorial. First, check out for CentOS Stream 9 compatibility issues the currently installed repositories if some specific or unofficial are used.
The following article uses a CentOS Stream 9 with only the official default repositories and in addition, the EPEL repository, which has a CentOS Stream 9 support.
How to install – Network installation of CentOS Stream 9 (20220606.0) – minimal server installation with additional information about important CentOS Stream 9 URLs and links and what kind of software the user can expect to have Software and technical details of CentOS Stream 9 minimal install. Camparing the packages of the two systems – a clean install of CentOS Stream 9 and an upgrade from CentOS Stream 8, the clean install has 377 packages installed and the upgrade has 387 packages installed. The strated processes are the same except the chronyd service is not started on boot. chronyd daemon offers a time synchronization.

STEP 1) All installed packages should be updated to the latest versions.

[root@srv ~]# dnf update -y
Last metadata expiration check: 0:09:08 ago on Tue Oct  4 12:12:07 2022.
Dependencies resolved.
Nothing to do.
Complete!

The DNF tool reports that all packages are up-to-date, because there is nothing to upgrade.

STEP 2) A cleanup of all packages, which are not required anymore.

Check orphan and leaves packages. Some of the packages here may be used by the user explicitly, so it is important to know the system. Remove the packages if not used by the system and they are showed as an output of the following commands and they are not used by the user of the system.

[root@srv ~]# dnf repoquery --unneeded
Last metadata expiration check: 0:12:56 ago on Tue Oct  4 12:12:07 2022.
NetworkManager-initscripts-updown-1:1.40.0-1.el8.noarch
grub2-tools-efi-1:2.02-129.el8.x86_64
libmetalink-0:0.1.3-7.el8.x86_64
pciutils-0:3.7.0-1.el8.x86_64
python3-configobj-0:5.0.6-11.el8.noarch
python3-schedutils-0:0.6-6.el8.x86_64
rdma-core-0:41.0-1.el8.x86_64
[root@srv ~]# dnf repoquery --extras
Last metadata expiration check: 0:00:12 ago on Tue Oct  4 12:34:17 2022.

Remove the unneeded packages:
Keep on reading!

Generate the rescue kernel boot entry in CentOS Stream 9

main menu
Generate the rescue kernel

Regenerating the vmlinuz and initramfs for the rescue kernel of currently installed kernel under CentOS Stream 9 is really simple. There is a package dracut-config-rescue, which delivers a bash script (/usr/lib/kernel/install.d/51-dracut-rescue.install) to help generate a rescue kernel.

STEP 1) Move the old rescue kernel in a backup directory.

Remove the current rescue kernel from the /boot.

[root@srv ~]# ls -altr /boot/|grep rescue
-rwxr-xr-x.  1 root root 10030216 Apr 12  2021 vmlinuz-0-rescue-b2a198ecbfdd451cb905f76f825af01e
-rw-------.  1 root root 77700560 Apr 12  2021 initramfs-0-rescue-b2a198ecbfdd451cb905f76f825af01e.img
[root@srv ~]# mkdir /tmp/old-rescue
[root@srv ~]# mv /boot/*-rescue-* /tmp/old-rescue/
[root@srv ~]# ls -altr /tmp/old-rescue/
total 85684
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 10030216 Apr 12  2021 vmlinuz-0-rescue-b2a198ecbfdd451cb905f76f825af01e
-rw-------. 1 root root 77700560 Apr 12  2021 initramfs-0-rescue-b2a198ecbfdd451cb905f76f825af01e.img
drwxrwxrwt. 9 root root     4096 Oct  5 10:00 ..
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root     4096 Oct  5 10:01 .
[root@srv ~]# mv /boot/loader/entries/b2a198ecbfdd451cb905f76f825af01e-0-rescue.conf /tmp/old-rescue/

STEP 2) Regenerate the rescue kernel and the Grub boot entry.

Regenerate the with the /usr/lib/kernel/install.d/51-dracut-rescue.install the rescue kernel and the Grub entry by executing the following command:

[root@srv ~]# /usr/lib/kernel/install.d/51-dracut-rescue.install add $(uname -r) /boot /boot/vmlinuz-$(uname -r)

The command does not output anything on successful generation, but there are 3 new files with rescue in the name:

[root@srv ~]# find /boot/ -name '*rescue*'
/boot/loader/entries/b2a198ecbfdd451cb905f76f825af01e-0-rescue.conf
/boot/vmlinuz-0-rescue-b2a198ecbfdd451cb905f76f825af01e
/boot/initramfs-0-rescue-b2a198ecbfdd451cb905f76f825af01e.img

Here are the valid arguments to generate the rescue kernel:

  1. add – the command what to do the script.
  2. kernel version – the kernel version, for which the script to generate the rescue kernel.
  3. boot directory – the boot directory, where the rescue kernel will be saved.
  4. kernel image – the kernel image against the script will produce the rescue kernel.

Bonus) Additional information.

It is interesting to mention, now, the script /usr/lib/kernel/install.d/51-dracut-rescue.install seems unfinished, because it does not include “USAGE” output and “remove” command is not implemented! The usage part is even stranger, because when the script is executed with wrong or without arguments it throws error for missing “usage command” (in fact, “usage” bash function):

[root@srv ~]# /usr/lib/kernel/install.d/51-dracut-rescue.install
/usr/lib/kernel/install.d/51-dracut-rescue.install: line 129: usage: command not found

The remove command is just not implemented and it exits the script with 0, which WILL NOT remove a kernel rescue entry.

[root@srv ~]# grep remove -A 4 /usr/lib/kernel/install.d/51-dracut-rescue.install
    remove)
        exit 0
        ;;

    *)

This is the situation for the latest version at present:

[root@srv ~]# dnf info dracut-config-rescue
Last metadata expiration check: 1:35:30 ago on Wed 05 Oct 2022 09:06:59 AM UTC.
Installed Packages
Name         : dracut-config-rescue
Version      : 057
Release      : 13.git20220816.el9
Architecture : x86_64
Size         : 3.5 k
Source       : dracut-057-13.git20220816.el9.src.rpm
Repository   : @System
From repo    : baseos
Summary      : dracut configuration to turn on rescue image generation
URL          : https://dracut.wiki.kernel.org/
License      : GPLv2+ and LGPLv2+ and GPLv2
Description  : This package provides the configuration to turn on the rescue initramfs
             : generation with dracut.

More topics on CentOS Stream 9 here.

Run LXC Ubuntu 22.04 LTS container with bridged network under CentOS Stream 9

In continuation of the previous article Run LXC CentOS Stream 9 container with bridged network under CentOS Stream 9, this time the LXC container will be Ubuntu 22.04 LTS Jammy Jellyfish.
To receive a better understanding why to use LXC or a much detailed information of some steps in this article it is better to visit the previously mention article and the original Run LXC CentOS 8 container with bridged network under CentOS 8.

STEP 1) Install the needed software EPEL repository and the LXC and its dependencies

To install LXC software the EPEL CentOS Stream 9 repository must be installed. At present, the LXC included in CentOS Stream 9 EPEL repository is 4.0.

dnf install -y epel-release
dnf install -y lxc lxc-templates container-selinux
dnf install -y wget tar

lxc-templates uses template “download” to download different Linux distribution images from http://images.linuxcontainers.org/, which now redirects to http://uk.lxd.images.canonical.com/ (an Ubuntu lxd images mirror).
The container-selinux should be installed only if the host, i.e. the CentOS Stream 9 install, is with enabled SELinux. The packages offers additional SELinux rules or for the LXC and LXC tools like lxc-attach and more.

STEP 2) Create a Ubuntu 22.04 LTS with the help of LXC templates

[root@srv ~]# lxc-create --template download -n mycontainer -- --dist centos --release 9-Stream --arch amd64

In addition, there is a “–variant” option along with “--dist” and “--release” to specify which variant to install – default, cloud, desktop or other. There is a variant column in the table on the images’ page mentioned above.
Keep on reading!

Run LXC CentOS Stream 9 container with bridged network under CentOS Stream 9

In continue of the previous article with CentOS 8 – Run LXC CentOS 8 container with bridged network under CentOS 8, here is an updated version with CentOS Stream 9 running LXC container. In this case, the LXC container is CentOS Stream 9, too.
Under CentOS 8, the LXC software is from branch 3.x, but in CentOS Stream 9 the LXC is 4.x and there are some differences in the LXC configuration file.
It’s worth mentioning the differences between docker/podman containers and LXC from the previous article:

  • Multiprocesses.
  • Easy configuration modification. Even hot-plugin supported.
  • Unprivileged Linux containers.
  • Complex network setups. Multiple network interfaces connected to different networks, for example.
  • Live systemd, i.e. systemd or SysV init are booted as usual. Much of the software relies on systemd/udev features and in many cases, it is really hard to run software without a systemd or init process

Here are the steps to boot a CentOS Stream 9 container under CentOS Stream 9 host server:

STEP 1) Install EPEL repository.

EPEL CentOS Stream 9 repository now includes LXC 4.0 software.

dnf install -y epel-release

STEP 2) Install LXC software and start LXC service.

At present, the LXC software version is 4.0.12. The package lxc-templates includes template scripts to create a Linux distribution environment like CentOS, Ubuntu, Debian, Gentoo, ArchLinux, Oracle, Alpine, and many others and it also includes the configuration templates to start these Linux distributions. In fact, lxc-templates now includes a download script to download images from the Internet.

dnf install -y lxc lxc-templates container-selinux
dnf install -y wget tar

The wget and tar are required if LXC templates installation is going to be performed.
There is an additional package for container’s SELinux, which should be installed before starting the LXC service, because some of the SELinux rules may not apply in the system. If the SELinux is disabled the installation of container-selinux package might be skipped.

STEP 3) Create a CentOS Stream 9 container with the help of LXC templates and run it.

Use the lxc-templates to prepare a CentOS Stream 9 container environment. The currently available containers are listed here http://images.linuxcontainers.org/, which now redirects to http://uk.lxd.images.canonical.com/ (an Ubuntu lxd images mirror). Check out the URL and choose the right container. Here the CentOS Stream 9 amd64, i.e. release 9-Stream, is used.

[root@srv ~]# lxc-create --template download -n mycontainer -- --dist centos --release 9-Stream --arch amd64

In addition, there is a “–variant” option along with “--dist” and “--release” to specify which variant to install – default, cloud, desktop or other. There is a variant column in the table on the images’ page mentioned above.
Keep on reading!

Review of freshly installed CentOS Stream 9 Workstation (Gnome GUI)

After the tutorial of Install CentOS Stream 9 Workstation (Gnome GUI) this tutorial is mainly to see what to expect from a freshly installed CentOS Stream 9 Workstation installation – the look and feel of the GUI (Gnome – version 40).

  • Xorg X server – 1.20.11
  • GNOME (the GUI) – 40.4.0
  • linux kernel – 5.14.0

More technical details are available for the server installation, which is not different from the workstation but the GUI (Gnome) installed – Software and technical details of CentOS Stream 9 minimal install. The later article may be of interest to developers, too. The CentOS Stream 9 Workstation install may install all of the listed software for CentOS Stream 9 Server.
The idea of this tutorial is just to see what to expect from CentOS Stream 9 Workstation (Gnome)the look and feel of the GUI, the default installed programs and their look and how to do some basic steps with them. Here the reader finds more than 125 screenshots and not so many text the main idea is not to distract the user with much text and version information and 3 meaningless screenshot, which the reader cannot see anything for the user interface, but these days the user interface is the primary goal of a Desktop system. More reviews of the kind will follow in the future …

CentOS is a pretty stable Linux Distribution System, which follows the paid Red Hat enterprise RHEL 9. And if the user really just wants a stable OS with a GUI for the next let’s say 5-10 years with support and fast security updates the CentOS Stream 9 might be perfect for it! Developing on this platform should be easy, too, because it supports all kind of virtualization and despite it may not include the bleeding edge libraries and software, it is easy enough to install latest software in a full or para virtualization or a container!

For all installation and review articles real workstations are used, not virtual environments!

SCREENSHOT 1) Fedora Linux (5.14.0-119.el9.x86_64) 9

main menu
grub 2.06 entry boot

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Install CentOS Stream 9 Workstation (Gnome GUI)

This is the latest CentOS version with a graphical interface Gnome for a workstation. If you are a developer or just a Linux user, which want to have a pretty stable Operating System, the CentOS Stream 9 may be an option for you. CentOS Stream 9 is based and follows the RedHat Enterprise Linux 9 – paid Linux for the enterprise world, which is available for free thanks to the Open-source Software. CentOS Stream 9 will receive all the updates from the paid Linux system RHEL 9 and the support will be 10 years from now. 5 years of full support and 5 more years of security updates. The use of CentOS Stream 9 assures the user to have a stable and secure Linux operating system, which will not bring fundamental changes and breaks things periodically as of a more enthusiastic Linux Distributions. More information for the system here – Software and technical details of CentOS Stream 9 minimal install and Software comparison Ubuntu server 22.04 LTS vs CentOS Stream 9 head-to-head
The CentOS Stream 9 has a generic installation wizard for multiple type of installations – server, server with gui, user workstation and so on. This article is to show what options to enable to install a user workstation with CentOS Stream 9 with a graphical interface – Gnome. Most of the people think CentOS as a server Linux Distribution, but in fact, it is ideal for a workstation, too, especially with the grade of stability and security these days.
This article uses network installation with the following media: http://mirror.stream.centos.org/9-stream/BaseOS/x86_64/iso/CentOS-Stream-9-latest-x86_64-boot.iso which always points to the latest release of the CentOS Stream 9. The network installation will choose automatically the best mirror to download the packages for the system. There is an option to use an off-line installation with an 8G ISO disk. Check out for more ISOs here – http://mirror.stream.centos.org/9-stream/BaseOS/x86_64/iso/

SCREENSHOT 1) Boot from the UEFI DVD-ROM device.

It is the same with the USB bootable removable drive. Choose the UEFI USB drive and boot the installation live drive.

main menu
UEFI BIOS DVD-ROM boot

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