Gentoo ERROR: Python module pytevent of version 0.10.2 not found, and bundling disabled

Emerging the sys-libs/ldb-2.3.0-r1 package may fail with an error for a missing Python mode, despite the sys-libs/tevent with a python USE flag is presented in the system:

Checking for system tevent (>=0.10.2)                                                           : yes 
ERROR: Python module pytevent of version 0.10.2 not found, and bundling disabled
 * ERROR: sys-libs/ldb-2.3.0-r1::gentoo failed (configure phase):
 *   configure failed
 * 
 * Call stack:

Indeed, the tevent (>=0.10.2) is found, but not the Python module! And the checking pase of the setup fails.
First, check whether the USE of sys-libs/tevent has python and the right version PYTHON_SINGLE_TARGET=”python3_8″ is used (the Python version may vary here):

root@srv # emerge -pv =tevent-0.10.2::gentoo

[ebuild   R    ] sys-libs/tevent-0.10.2::gentoo  USE="python" ABI_X86="32 (64) (-x32)" PYTHON_SINGLE_TARGET="python3_8 -python3_9" 0 KiB

Total: 1 package (1 reinstall), Size of downloads: 0 KiB

This system uses Python 3.8 and the library sys-libs/tevent was built with this USE flag.

The problem here is the tevent is installed under a its own directory: /usr/lib64/tevent. Using the ldconig utility the problem quickly has been resolved. Just add a file /etc/ld.so.conf.d/tevent_ldb.conf with the path to the library and then regenerate the ldconfig:

root@srv # cat /etc/ld.so.conf.d/tevent_ldb.conf
/usr/lib64/tevent
root@srv # ldconfig
root@srv # 

Do not forget to run the “ldconfig“, because tevent library won’t be added to the LD cache. Emerging the sys-libs/ldb and then samba was successful after this quick workaround! There is a Gentoo bug reported, but the problem still exists – https://bugs.gentoo.org/590026

Gentoo emerge virtualbox- Mesa / GLU: Mesa not found at, Mesa headers not found

Emerging the package app-emulation/virtualbox the following error occurs:

Checking for Mesa / GLU: 
  Mesa not found at -L/usr/X11R6/lib -L/usr/X11R6/lib64 -L/usr/local/lib -lXext -lX11 -lGL -I/usr/local/include or Mesa headers not found
  Check the file /var/tmp/portage/app-emulation/virtualbox-6.1.18/work/VirtualBox-6.1.18/configure.log for detailed error information.
Check /var/tmp/portage/app-emulation/virtualbox-6.1.18/work/VirtualBox-6.1.18/configure.log for details
 * ERROR: app-emulation/virtualbox-6.1.18::gentoo failed (configure phase):
 *   (no error message)
 * 
 * Call stack:
 *     ebuild.sh, line  125:  Called src_configure
 *   environment, line 5504:  Called doecho './configure' '--with-gcc=x86_64-pc-linux-gnu-gcc' '--with-g++=x86_64-pc-linux-gnu-g++' '--disable-dbus' '--disable-kmods' '--disable-alsa' '--disable-docs' '--disable-devmapper' '--disable-pulse' '--disable-python' '--enable-webservice' '--enable-vnc'
 *   environment, line 1538:  Called die
 * The specific snippet of code:
 *       "$@" || die

The configure script reports the mesa is missing, but the package media-libs/mesa is installed. Reinstalling does not fix the problem.
Farther investigation in the logs by checking the configure.log reveals the real problem:

srv ~ # tail -n 16 /var/tmp/portage/app-emulation/virtualbox-6.1.18/work/VirtualBox-6.1.18/configure.log
***** Checking Mesa / GLU *****
compiling the following source file:
#include <cstdio>
#include <X11/Xlib.h>
#include <GL/glx.h>
#include <GL/glu.h>
extern "C" int main(void)
{
  return 0;
}
using the following command line:
x86_64-pc-linux-gnu-g++  -fPIC -g -O -Wall -o /var/tmp/portage/app-emulation/virtualbox-6.1.18/work/VirtualBox-6.1.18/.tmp_out /var/tmp/portage/app-emulation/virtualbox-6.1.18/work/VirtualBox-6.1.18/.tmp_src.cc "-L/usr/X11R6/lib -L/usr/X11R6/lib64 -L/usr/local/lib -lXext -lX11 -lGL -I/usr/local/include"
/var/tmp/portage/app-emulation/virtualbox-6.1.18/work/VirtualBox-6.1.18/.tmp_src.cc:4:10: fatal error: GL/glu.h: No such file or directory
    4 | #include <GL/glu.h>
      |          ^~~~~~~~~~
compilation terminated.

The glu part of mesa is missing. In Gentoo, the glu (https://gitlab.freedesktop.org/mesa/glu) is not included in the media-libs/mesa and it is a separate package media-libs/glu.

The solution is to emerge media-libs/glu and then the app-emulation/virtualbox.

emerge -v media-libs/glu

Another Linux distribution may include glu in the main mesa package.

Here, the conclusion is to always check the configure.log, because it reports the exact error and not to trust the generic output of the configure script.

Simple export of a ext4 directory with NFS Ganesha 3.5 server in CentOS 8 with SELinux enforcing

In fact, this article is a continuation of the previous NFS Ganesha article – Simple export of an ext4 directory with NFS Ganesha 3.5 server in CentOS 8 without SELinux because it has the same purpose to export a directory residing on an ext4 file system under CentOS 8 Stream, but this time the SELinux is enabled and it is in enforcing mode! There is a need for this additional article because the SELinux is not enabled in many user configurations (despite being wrong!) and the SELinux configuration may add complexity to the first article, which could lead to misleading thoughts. The previous article might be a little bit more detailed, so the reader could check it, too.
It’s worth mentioning the key points of NFS-Ganesha:

  • a user-mode file sharing server
  • supports NFS 3, 4.x and 9P
  • using plugins for different file systems
  • CentOS Storage Special Interest Group offers a file repository with NFS-Ganesha server
  • supports file systems like ext4, xfs, brtfs, zfs and more. There are sample configurations: https://github.com/phdeniel/nfs-ganesha/tree/master/src/config_samples
  • supports cluster and/or distributed file systems like GlusterFS, Ceph, GPFS, HPSS, Lustre
  • Current version 3.5 and it is included in the official SIG CentOS Storage Special Interest Group repository.

This article assumes the reader has a clean CentOS 8 Stream installation with SELinux in enforcing mode.

STEP 1) Install the repository and NFS-Ganesha software

NFS-Ganesha 3 packages are from the CentOS Storage SIG repository, which is a good repository and may be trusted.

dnf install -y centos-release-nfs-ganesha30
dnf install -y nfs-ganesha nfs-ganesha-vfs nfs-ganesha-selinux

STEP 2) Configuration for exporting a directory.

There are two files under /etc/ganesha/:

ganesha.conf
vfs.conf

ganesha.conf includes global configuration and NFS share configuration. Each export path begins with the keyword EXPORT followed by a block ebraced by brackets {}.
vfs.conf includes a simple example for the VFS plugin, but this configuration file is not used by the NFS Ganesha server. It is just a sample file.
Here is a simple configuration, which exports /mnt/storage with Read/Write permissions to a single IP. Just add at the end of the file /etc/ganesha/ganesha.conf contains:

 
EXPORT
{
        Export_Id = 2;
        Path = /mnt/storage1;
        Pseudo = /mnt/storage1;
        Protocols = 3,4;
        Access_Type = RW;
        Squash = None;
        FSAL
        {
                Name = VFS;
        }
        CLIENT
        {
                Clients = 192.168.0.12;
        }
}

STEP 3) Start the server and mount the exported directory. Configure the firewall.

Start the server, enable the service to start on boot and then configure the firewall to pass the NFS requests:

systemctl start nfs-ganesha
systemctl enable nfs-ganesha
firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=nfs
firewall-cmd --reload

Keep on reading!

Simple export of a ext4 directory with NFS Ganesha 3.5 server in CentOS 8 without SELinux

NFS Ganesha is a user-mode file sharing server, which supports NFS 3 and 4.x versions and 9P. NFS Ganesha has several interesting plugins that support exporting files from the cluster and distributed file systems like Ceph and Glusterfs Exporting a file system with NFS Ganesha is simple enough if you do not use SELinux or SELinux is in permissive mode!
This article is to show how to export a server’s directory using NFS protocol Just to note the NFS-Ganesha is tested and supports ext2/ext3/ext4, xfs, brtfs, zfs file systems as of version 3.5 (check the manual for xfs, brtfs and zfs exports – here are sample configurations for them https://github.com/phdeniel/nfs-ganesha/tree/master/src/config_samples). To be able to export a file directory the VFS Ganesha plugin is used. A clean install of minimal CentOS 8 Stream is used so the installation log may differ significantly from the user’s log but the user will see all the dependencies, which are required for this setup.

STEP 1) Install the repository and NFS-Ganesha software

NFS-Ganesha 3 packages are from the CentOS Storage SIG repository, which is a good repository and may be trusted.

dnf install -y centos-release-nfs-ganesha30
dnf install -y nfs-ganesha nfs-ganesha-vfs

STEP 2) Configuration for exporting a directory.

There are two files under /etc/ganesha/:

ganesha.conf
vfs.conf

ganesha.conf includes global configuration and NFS share configuration. Each export path begins with the keyword EXPORT followed by a block ebraced by brackets {}.
vfs.conf includes a simple example for the VFS plugin, but this configuration file is not used by the NFS Ganesha server. It is just a sample file.
Here is a simple configuration, which exports /mnt/storage with Read/Write permissions to a single IP. Just add at the end of the file /etc/ganesha/ganesha.conf contains:

 
EXPORT
{
        Export_Id = 2;
        Path = /mnt/storage1;
        Pseudo = /mnt/storage1;
        Protocols = 3,4;
        Access_Type = RW;
        Squash = None;
        FSAL
        {
                Name = VFS;
        }
        CLIENT
        {
                Clients = 192.168.0.12;
        }
}

STEP 3) Start the server and mount the exported directory. Configure the firewall.

Start the server, enable the service to start on boot and then configure the firewall to pass the NFS requests:

systemctl start nfs-ganesha
systemctl enable nfs-ganesha
firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=nfs
firewall-cmd --reload

Keep on reading!

Repairing damaged backup GPT with gdisk

Problem with network shared storage could lead to a damaged file system or even GPT tables, so the gdisk may help in this case.
Here it is a nasty the error:

[root@srv1 ~]# kpartx /dev/loop0
Alternate GPT is invalid, using primary GPT.
loop0p1 : 0 83881984 /dev/loop0 2048
[root@srv1 ~]# parted /dev/loop0
GNU Parted 3.1
Using /dev/loop0
Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
(parted) p                                                                
Error: The backup GPT table is corrupt, but the primary appears OK, so that will be used.
OK/Cancel? OK                                                             
Model: Loopback device (loopback)
Disk /dev/loop0: 42.9GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags: 

Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name     Flags
 1      1049kB  42.9GB  42.9GB               primary

(parted)

So parted reports the backup GPT is damaged, but how to fix it? The solution is to use gdisk and use write “w” command in it. gdisk also shows the exact error with the GPT table with “v” option:

[root@srv1 ~]# gdisk 
GPT fdisk (gdisk) version 0.8.10

Type device filename, or press <Enter> to exit: /dev/loop0
Warning! Main and backup partition tables differ! Use the 'c' and 'e' options
on the recovery & transformation menu to examine the two tables.

Warning! One or more CRCs don't match. You should repair the disk!

Partition table scan:
  MBR: protective
  BSD: not present
  APM: not present
  GPT: damaged

****************************************************************************
Caution: Found protective or hybrid MBR and corrupt GPT. Using GPT, but disk
verification and recovery are STRONGLY recommended.
****************************************************************************

Command (? for help): p
Disk /dev/loop0: 83886080 sectors, 40.0 GiB
Logical sector size: 512 bytes
Disk identifier (GUID): 7EDF123B-FBC4-4C09-B636-922BD165F862
Partition table holds up to 128 entries
First usable sector is 34, last usable sector is 83886046
Partitions will be aligned on 2048-sector boundaries
Total free space is 4029 sectors (2.0 MiB)

Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size       Code  Name
   1            2048        83884031   40.0 GiB    0700  primary

Command (? for help): v

Caution: The CRC for the backup partition table is invalid. This table may
be corrupt. This program will automatically create a new backup partition
table when you save your partitions.

Identified 1 problems!

Command (? for help): p
Disk /dev/loop0: 83886080 sectors, 40.0 GiB
Logical sector size: 512 bytes
Disk identifier (GUID): 7EDF123B-FBC4-4C09-B636-922BD165F862
Partition table holds up to 128 entries
First usable sector is 34, last usable sector is 83886046
Partitions will be aligned on 2048-sector boundaries
Total free space is 4029 sectors (2.0 MiB)

Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size       Code  Name
   1            2048        83884031   40.0 GiB    0700  primary

Command (? for help): w

Final checks complete. About to write GPT data. THIS WILL OVERWRITE EXISTING
PARTITIONS!!

Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): Y
OK; writing new GUID partition table (GPT) to /dev/loop0.

Warning: The kernel is still using the old partition table.
The new table will be used at the next reboot.
The operation has completed successfully.

And the GPT backup in this loop device is fixed. Executing parted again reports no problems:

[root@srv1 ~]# parted /dev/loop0 print
Model: Loopback device (loopback)
Disk /dev/loop0: 42.9GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags: 

Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name     Flags
 1      1049kB  42.9GB  42.9GB               primary

Verify also reports nor error. More options are available:

[root@srv1 ~]# gdisk /dev/loop0
GPT fdisk (gdisk) version 0.8.10

Partition table scan:
  MBR: protective
  BSD: not present
  APM: not present
  GPT: present

Found valid GPT with protective MBR; using GPT.

Command (? for help): h
b  back up GPT data to a file
c  change a partition's name
d  delete a partition
i  show detailed information on a partition
l  list known partition types
n  add a new partition
o  create a new empty GUID partition table (GPT)
p  print the partition table
q  quit without saving changes
r  recovery and transformation options (experts only)
s  sort partitions
t  change a partition's type code
v  verify disk
w  write table to disk and exit
x  extra functionality (experts only)
?  print this menu

Command (? for help): v

No problems found. 4029 free sectors (2.0 MiB) available in 2
segments, the largest of which is 2015 (1007.5 KiB) in size.

Command (? for help): q

Force losetup detach of local file after it became unavailable

Mounting a file as loop devices is simple enough operation! But what if the file just disappears because of the network storage got unreachable?

In our case the shared network storage had got unavailable and the ext4 file system of the loop device got read-only! Unfortunately after the reset of the shared network storage and mounting it in the same place, the loop device (/dev/loop0) still maintained the old file descriptor to the unavailable file. And the losetup could not detach the device, at all.

root@srv ~# losetup -d /dev/loop0
root@srv ~# losetup -l
NAME       SIZELIMIT OFFSET AUTOCLEAR RO BACK-FILE
/dev/loop0         0      0         0  0 /mnt/storage4/servers/test_raw_image.img
[root@lsrv1 ~]# kpartx -df /dev/loop0
read error, sector 0
read error, sector 1
read error, sector 29

The above command could not detach the device. Unfortunately, the losetup does not have the force detach, so the server ended with blocked loop0 device pointing to unavailable file. kpartx does not work, neither.

The solution is to use dmsetup!

root@srv ~# dmsetup remove /dev/mapper/loop0p1
root@srv ~# losetup -l
root@srv ~#

And there is no loop device any more. The wrong pointing loop device has been removed successfully! Now the user can use the loop0 for another device and in many cases, this helps to umount the filesystem!

xdg and autostart in Linux X server regardless the desktop environment

There is a tool xdg, which manages application integration with the different GUI Desktops in the Linux world. One of the features it offers is to autostart an application when the X window system starts and it is perfectly normal to have a bunch of running programs that cannot be found in the Windowing manager settings like KDE System Settings -> Autostart, GNOME Tweak tool and Autostart and so on.

xdg offers autostart of Linux appilcations mainly Desktop when the GUI windowing system starts

There two main paths to look for entries to autostart:

  1. /etc/xdg/autostart – called system-wide and most of the application will place files when they are installed.
  2. [user’s home]/.config/autostart – user’s applications to start when the user logs in .

With xdg autostart feature the user can explain himself why the Windowing systems like KDE or GNOME start tens of applications (not exactly related to the base GUI windowing system).

There is a security problem here, which is sometimes installing a package will place an autostart file there because the maintainer decided it is important but the package might be just a dependency and the next time the user logs in unwanted program might execute and open ports!

For example, Rygel is an open-source UPnP/DLNA MediaServer and it might be installed as a dependency but it places an autostart file, which starts a UPnP/DLNA server and exports the /home/[user’s directory]/Videos, /home/[user’s directory]/Pictures and more to the local network. Another example is with the GNOME index system tracker and the tracker-store, which may easily eat the RAM, disk, CPU, battery on a system without GNOME but with a different GUI!

Here is what a typical Ubuntu 18.04 system might autostart

Keep on reading!

aptly delete a mirror and remove all files

Executing drop command on a mirror will only remove the meta information for the mirror and it will not remove the package files occupying space on the file system.

Dropping mirror in aptly supposes to execute a clean command with aplty

aptly db cleanup

The newly created Bionic mirrors in the prevoius article on the aptly subject – Mirror the official Ubuntu repositories using aptly will be deleted here and removing all files with:

aptly@srv:~$ aptly mirror drop bionic-main
Mirror `bionic-main` has been removed.
aptly@srv:~$ aptly mirror drop bionic-security-main
Mirror `binonic-security-main` has been removed.
aptly@srv:~$ aptly mirror drop bionic-universe     
Mirror `bionic-universe` has been removed.
aptly@srv:~$ aptly mirror drop bionic-updates-main
Mirror `binonic-updates-main` has been removed.
aptly@srv:~$ aptly mirror drop bionic-updates-universe
Mirror `bionic-updates-universe` has been removed.
aptly@srv:~$ aptly mirror list
No mirrors found, create one with `aptly mirror create ...`.

The occupied space on the disk mounted in /srv is 270G:

aptly@srv:~$ df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev            1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /dev
tmpfs           395M  3.5M  391M   1% /run
/dev/sda3        19G  4.6G   13G  27% /
tmpfs           2.0G  204K  2.0G   1% /dev/shm
tmpfs           5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
tmpfs           2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda4       470G  270G  176G  61% /srv
tmpfs           395M     0  395M   0% /run/user/0
tmpfs           395M     0  395M   0% /run/user/1001

Actually freeing the space on the disk with the clean aptly command:

aptly@srv:~$ aptly db cleanup
Loading mirrors, local repos, snapshots and published repos...
Loading list of all packages...
Deleting unreferenced packages (143121)...
Building list of files referenced by packages...
Building list of files in package pool...
Deleting unreferenced files (194097)...
Disk space freed: 268.80 GiB...
Compacting database...

The occupied space on the disk mounted in /srv is below 2G after the cleaning command:

aptly@srv:~$ df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev            1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /dev
tmpfs           395M  3.5M  391M   1% /run
/dev/sda3        19G  4.6G   13G  27% /
tmpfs           2.0G  204K  2.0G   1% /dev/shm
tmpfs           5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
tmpfs           2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda4       470G    1G  176G   1% /srv
tmpfs           395M     0  395M   0% /run/user/0
tmpfs           395M     0  395M   0% /run/user/1001

Copy files with read errors successfully – skipping only errors (i.e. bad sectors)

Sometimes disks have errors or an SSD disk has a bad NAND cell. Saving the whole hard disk data may not be needed and when only a specific file or two are important and which cannot be copied by cp or rsync because of “Unrecovered read error”.
Furthermore, the SSD reallocates the bad cells, when there are writes to the cell(s), which may not occur years, but reading may be each day. Reading from a sector with bad NAND cells will result in slow IO (multiple read commands are executed before giving up). Copying the file to a new place without only 512 bytes may not harm the data, but it is difficult to be done with the generic tool for copying.
This article is to save single files from a mounted ext4 file system with bad sectors using the ddrescue tool – https://www.gnu.org/software/ddrescue/ In fact, the ddrescue could save files or whole devices.

STEP 1) Install ddrescue.

Installing ddrescue is pretty easy. The tool is included in almost all Linux distributions and it doesn’t have many dependencies. Apparently, there is another dd_rescue tool, which is different than this one, just follow the link above for the tool used here.
CentOS 7/8 or Fedora:

yum install -y ddrescue

Ubuntu last 10 years versions:

apt install -y gddrescue

Gentoo:

emerge -v ddrescue

STEP 2) Rescuing a single file with read errors because of bad sectors in a mounted file system.

[root@srv Snapshots]# ddrescue -v \{9f02ae0a-6dae-4729-b6a6-ec3f0550f294\}.vdi test2.vdi
GNU ddrescue 1.25
About to copy 15724 MBytes from '{9f02ae0a-6dae-4729-b6a6-ec3f0550f294}.vdi' to 'test2.vdi'
    Starting positions: infile = 0 B,  outfile = 0 B
    Copy block size: 128 sectors       Initial skip size: 384 sectors
Sector size: 512 Bytes

Press Ctrl-C to interrupt
     ipos:   13495 MB, non-trimmed:        0 B,  current rate:       0 B/s
     opos:   13495 MB, non-scraped:        0 B,  average rate:    162 MB/s
non-tried:        0 B,  bad-sector:     8192 B,    error rate:    4608 B/s
  rescued:   15724 MB,   bad areas:        2,        run time:      1m 36s
pct rescued:   99.99%, read errors:       18,  remaining time:          0s
                              time since last successful read:          0s
Finished                                      
[root@srv Snapshots]# ls -al
total 52602944
drwx------. 2 root root        4096 Jun  2 02:22 .
drwxr-xr-x. 4 root root        4096 Jun  1 14:16 ..
-rw-------. 1 root root   459981735 Nov  8  2018 2018-11-08T15-19-17-776317000Z.sav
-rw-------. 1 root root   566704069 Jun  1 14:16 2020-06-01T11-16-05-735318000Z.sav
-rw-------. 1 root root  8329887744 Jun  1 12:53 {3d30ebea-2e2f-4e33-8088-d3d66f315e2c}.vdi
-rw-------. 1 root root 15724445696 Nov  8  2018 {9f02ae0a-6dae-4729-b6a6-ec3f0550f294}.vdi
-rw-------. 1 root root  4012900352 Jun  1 14:16 {f7e72510-7dce-48fd-b62c-630664ad984f}.vdi
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 15724445696 Jun  2 02:24 test2.vdi
-rw-------. 1 root root  9051041792 Jun  2 02:19 test.vdi

Here is an animated gif of the ddrescue procedure:

main menu
ddrescue – copy files with bad sectors

Keep on reading!

Data too large, data for [] would be [] which is larger than the limit of

Rsyslog writing to Elasticsearch could lead to an error for some of the records and missing to save them in the backend:

{ ... { "error": { "root_cause": [ { "type": "circuit_breaking_exception", 
"reason": "[parent] Data too large, data for [<http_request>] would be [1008813778\/962mb], which is larger than the limit of [986061209\/940.3mb], 
real usage: [1008812248\/962mb], new bytes reserved: [1530\/1.4kb], usages [request=0\/0b, fielddata=317\/317b, in_flight_requests=1530\/1.4kb, accounting=178301893\/170mb]",
"bytes_wanted": 1008813778, "bytes_limit": 986061209, "durability": "PERMANENT" }], 
"type": "circuit_breaking_exception", "reason": "[parent] Data too large, data for [<http_request>] would be [1008813778\/962mb], which is larger than the limit of [986061209\/940.3mb], 
real usage: [1008812248\/962mb], new bytes reserved: [1530\/1.4kb], usages [request=0\/0b, fielddata=317\/317b, in_flight_requests=1530\/1.4kb, accounting=178301893\/170mb]",
"bytes_wanted": 1008813778, "bytes_limit": 986061209, "durability": "PERMANENT" }, "status": 429 } }

Unfortunately, such writes are not saved in the Elasticsearch and the data has been lost.

The problem here is that the Java VM has reached the maximum allowed memory and more memory should be allowed to be used by the Java Virtual Machine.

Find the Java VM option for the Elasticsearchjvm.options. In CentOS 7 the file is located in /etc/elasticsearch/jvm.options and set more memory with the variables “-Xms[SIZE]g -Xmx[SIZE]g”, such as:

.....
-Xms4g
-Xmx4g
.....

|grep -v grep
This will allow 4G “maximum size of total heap space” to be used by the Java Virtual Machine. By default, it is 1G (-Xms1g -Xmx1g). It is a good idea to set it half of the server’s memory. Save and restart the Elasticsearch service as usual:

systemctl restart elasticsearch

You should see the variable in the command line with ps command:

[root@loganalyzer ~]# ps axuf|grep elasticsearch
elastic+   592 10.8 34.4 168638848 5493156 ?   Ssl  00:56   4:23 /usr/share/elasticsearch/jdk/bin/java -Des.networkaddress.cache.ttl=60
-Des.networkaddress.cache.negative.ttl=10 -XX:+AlwaysPreTouch -Xss1m -Djava.awt.headless=true -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8 
-Djna.nosys=true -XX:-OmitStackTraceInFastThrow -Dio.netty.noUnsafe=true -Dio.netty.noKeySetOptimization=true
-Dio.netty.recycler.maxCapacityPerThread=0 -Dio.netty.allocator.numDirectArenas=0 -Dlog4j.shutdownHookEnabled=false 
-Dlog4j2.disable.jmx=true -Djava.locale.providers=COMPAT 
-Xms4g -Xmx4g 
-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC -XX:CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction=75 -XX:+UseCMSInitiatingOccupancyOnly 
-Djava.io.tmpdir=/tmp/elasticsearch-16851535740012150929 -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError -XX:HeapDumpPath=/var/lib/elasticsearch 
-XX:ErrorFile=/var/log/elasticsearch/hs_err_pid%p.log elasticsearch
-Xlog:gc*,gc+age=trace,safepoint:file=/var/log/elasticsearch/gc.log:utctime,pid,tags:filecount=32,filesize=64m 
-XX:MaxDirectMemorySize=2147483648 -Des.path.home=/usr/share/elasticsearch -Des.path.conf=/etc/elasticsearch 
-Des.distribution.flavor=default -Des.distribution.type=rpm -Des.bundled_jdk=true 
-cp /usr/share/elasticsearch/lib/* org.elasticsearch.bootstrap.Elasticsearch -p /var/run/elasticsearch/elasticsearch.pid --quiet
elastic+   690  0.0  0.0  70448  4516 ?        Sl   00:56   0:00  \_ /usr/share/elasticsearch/modules/x-pack-ml/platform/linux-x86_64/bin/controller

The environment variable ES_JAVA_OPTS could be used, too.

ES_JAVA_OPTS="-Xms4g -Xmx4g" ./bin/elasticsearch