Review of freshly installed CentOS Stream 9 Workstation (Gnome GUI)

After the tutorial of Install CentOS Stream 9 Workstation (Gnome GUI) this tutorial is mainly to see what to expect from a freshly installed CentOS Stream 9 Workstation installation – the look and feel of the GUI (Gnome – version 40).

  • Xorg X server – 1.20.11
  • GNOME (the GUI) – 40.4.0
  • linux kernel – 5.14.0

More technical details are available for the server installation, which is not different from the workstation but the GUI (Gnome) installed – Software and technical details of CentOS Stream 9 minimal install. The later article may be of interest to developers, too. The CentOS Stream 9 Workstation install may install all of the listed software for CentOS Stream 9 Server.
The idea of this tutorial is just to see what to expect from CentOS Stream 9 Workstation (Gnome)the look and feel of the GUI, the default installed programs and their look and how to do some basic steps with them. Here the reader finds more than 125 screenshots and not so many text the main idea is not to distract the user with much text and version information and 3 meaningless screenshot, which the reader cannot see anything for the user interface, but these days the user interface is the primary goal of a Desktop system. More reviews of the kind will follow in the future …

CentOS is a pretty stable Linux Distribution System, which follows the paid Red Hat enterprise RHEL 9. And if the user really just wants a stable OS with a GUI for the next let’s say 5-10 years with support and fast security updates the CentOS Stream 9 might be perfect for it! Developing on this platform should be easy, too, because it supports all kind of virtualization and despite it may not include the bleeding edge libraries and software, it is easy enough to install latest software in a full or para virtualization or a container!

For all installation and review articles real workstations are used, not virtual environments!

SCREENSHOT 1) Fedora Linux (5.14.0-119.el9.x86_64) 9

main menu
grub 2.06 entry boot

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Install CentOS Stream 9 Workstation (Gnome GUI)

This is the latest CentOS version with a graphical interface Gnome for a workstation. If you are a developer or just a Linux user, which want to have a pretty stable Operating System, the CentOS Stream 9 may be an option for you. CentOS Stream 9 is based and follows the RedHat Enterprise Linux 9 – paid Linux for the enterprise world, which is available for free thanks to the Open-source Software. CentOS Stream 9 will receive all the updates from the paid Linux system RHEL 9 and the support will be 10 years from now. 5 years of full support and 5 more years of security updates. The use of CentOS Stream 9 assures the user to have a stable and secure Linux operating system, which will not bring fundamental changes and breaks things periodically as of a more enthusiastic Linux Distributions. More information for the system here – Software and technical details of CentOS Stream 9 minimal install and Software comparison Ubuntu server 22.04 LTS vs CentOS Stream 9 head-to-head
The CentOS Stream 9 has a generic installation wizard for multiple type of installations – server, server with gui, user workstation and so on. This article is to show what options to enable to install a user workstation with CentOS Stream 9 with a graphical interface – Gnome. Most of the people think CentOS as a server Linux Distribution, but in fact, it is ideal for a workstation, too, especially with the grade of stability and security these days.
This article uses network installation with the following media: http://mirror.stream.centos.org/9-stream/BaseOS/x86_64/iso/CentOS-Stream-9-latest-x86_64-boot.iso which always points to the latest release of the CentOS Stream 9. The network installation will choose automatically the best mirror to download the packages for the system. There is an option to use an off-line installation with an 8G ISO disk. Check out for more ISOs here – http://mirror.stream.centos.org/9-stream/BaseOS/x86_64/iso/

SCREENSHOT 1) Boot from the UEFI DVD-ROM device.

It is the same with the USB bootable removable drive. Choose the UEFI USB drive and boot the installation live drive.

main menu
UEFI BIOS DVD-ROM boot

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Install Fedora 36 Xfce Desktop

This article will show the simple steps of installing a modern Linux Distribution like Fedora 36 Xfce Desktop with Xfce for the user graphical interface – one of the alternatives, which tries to break the domination of Gnome and partly KDE Plasma. First, it is offered the basic steps for installing the Operating system and then there are some screenshots of the installed system and the look and feel of it. Here is another article available with more screenshots of the installed and working Fedora 36 Xfce DesktopReview of freshly installed Fedora 36 Xcfe Desktop.
Xfce offers fast, easy and lightweight graphical environment for Linux systems and Fedora teams brings it out-of-the-box with their spins projects – Fedora Xfce Spin
This is the simplest set up. One hard disk device in the system is installed, which is detected as sda and the entire disk will be used for the installation of Fedora 36 Xfce Desktop. All disk information in sda disk device will be permanently deleted by the installation wizard!

The Fedora 36 Xfce Desktop comes with:

  • Xorg X server – 1.20.14 XWayland is used by default
  • linux kernel – 5.17.5
  • Xfce: 4.16, which is the latest stable as of the official Xfce site.

For more packages versions information check out the Fedora 36 server articles – Software and technical details of Fedora Server 36 including cockpit screenshots and Software comparison Ubuntu server 22.04 LTS vs Fedora 36 server edition – head-to-head.

We used the following ISO for the installation process:
https://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/releases/36/Spins/x86_64/iso/Fedora-Xfce-Live-x86_64-36-1.5.iso
It is a LIVE image so you can try it before installing it. The easiest way is just to download the image and burn it to a DVD disk or USB stick and then follow the installation below:

SCREENSHOT 1) Boot from the UEFI DVD-ROM device.

It is the same with the USB bootable removable drive. Choose the UEFI USB drive and boot the installation live drive.

main menu
UEFI BIOS DVD-ROM boot

Keep on reading!

Network installation of CentOS Stream 9 (20220606.0) – minimal server installation

Minimal net install is useful when a dedicated server is installed from a IPMI KVM or Dell iDRAC, HP iLO, IBM IMM or where the initial client side download of files need to be minimal.
CentOS Stream 9 is receives the updates before Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) and there is no versioning except the major release, which is 9. So the CentOS Stream 9 receives the updates for Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 9. On monthly or less basis CentOS community releases a stable ISO with a temporary time version like this one CentOS Stream 9 (20220606.0).

Continuously delivered distro that tracks just ahead of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) development

Here are some useful URLs:

For amd64 the net of CentOS Stream 9 install bootable media is located here (now the current latest release is 20220606.0, but you may check the last release. for the time you follow this howto):

http://mirror.stream.centos.org/9-stream/BaseOS/x86_64/iso/CentOS-Stream-9-latest-x86_64-boot.iso

Note there is no minimal CD for offline installation. Boot CD is to just boot and make “network installation” installation and there is a big fat DVD of 8.1 Gbytes to install offline.

Software details of CentOS Stream 9 minimal install could be found here – coming soon. Technical details of a default CentOS Stream 9 (20220606.0) minimal installation
There is a previous major release installation article – How to do a network installation of CentOS 8 (8.0.1950) – minimal server installation

Download it and put it on a CD or USB, the boot from it and follow the steps bellow:

SCREENSHOT 1) If you booted from the DVD you would get this first screen – select “Install CentOS Stream 9” and hit Enter

main menu
Start installation

Keep on reading!

Install Fedora Workstation 36 (Gnome GUI)

This article will show the simple steps of installing a modern Linux Distribution like Fedora 36 Workstation Edition with Gnome for the user graphical interface. First, it is offered the basic steps for installing the Operating system and then there are some screenshots of the installed system and the look and feel of it. It is coming soon another article showing more screenshots of the installed and working Fedora 36 (Gnome and KDE plasma) – so the user may decide which of them to try first.
This is the simplest set up. One hard disk device in the system is installed, which is detected as sda and the entire disk will be used for the installation of Fedora Workstation 36. All disk information in sda disk device will be permanently deleted by the installation wizard!

The Fedora 32 Workstation comes with

  • Xorg X server – 1.20.14 XWayland (22.1.2) is used by default
  • GNOME (the GUI) – 42.0
  • linux kernel – 5.17.5

Check out our article about what software is included in [coming soon].

There are previous installations howto articles for the older Fedora 31Install Fedora Workstation 31 (Gnome GUI) and Install Fedora Workstation 30 (Gnome GUI).

The following ISO is used for the installation process: https://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/releases/36/Workstation/x86_64/iso/Fedora-Workstation-Live-x86_64-36-1.5.iso
It is a LIVE image so you can try it before installing. The easiest way is just to download the image and burn it to a DVD disk (or make a bootable USB flash drive) and then follow the installation below:

SCREENSHOT 1) Boot from the UEFI DVD-ROM device.

It is the same with the USB bootable removable drive. Choose the UEFI USB drive and boot the installation live drive.

main menu
UEFI BIOS DVD-ROM boot

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Install and use collectd-ping under CentOS 8 to monitor latency

Tracking the network latency of the servers’ network is not an easy job. Most monitoring software is capable to monitor the state of the server, but how to monitor the state of the connectivity and the network latency and even the Internet connectivity with some respectful addresses like 1.1.1.1 or 8.8.8.8? It should be easy to do it with ICMP and ping command but using the collectd daemon and one of its plugins offers collectd-ping from https://collectd.org/wiki/index.php/Plugin:Ping to save all the history in a time series back-end and using grafanahttps://grafana.com/ (or other graphs/histograms and etc software) to make graphs.
Using the collectd-ping plugin in conjunction with grafana may reach the similar effect as using the old and gold smokeping.
CentOS 7 included the collectd-ping plugin in its official repository, but in CentOS 8 the plugin is missing! Under Cent OS 8 the CentOS SIG OpsTools https://wiki.centos.org/SpecialInterestGroup/OpsTools includes the collectd-ping plugin in their repository. More on SIG and OpsTools may be obtained in the later page. In general, it is safe to use this repository it would not break user’s system.
Here is how to install and configure it. Real grafana examples are also included at the end.

The example here assumes there is a grafana server installed with influxdb backend.

STEP 1) Add OpsTools repository and install the collectd and collectd-ping.

The OpsTools repository is installed with centos-release-opstools package.
Here is what is going to install:

dnf install -y centos-release-opstools
dnf install -y collectd collectd-ping

Keep on reading!

Install Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS on the entire disk

This tutorial will show the simple steps of installing the latest version of UbuntuUbuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS. This is the simplest set up. One hard disk device in the system is installed, which is detected as sda and the entire disk will be used for the installation of Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS. All disk information in sda disk device will be permanently deleted by the installation wizard!
Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS comes with the following software:

  • Xorg X server – 1.22.1.1
  • GNOME (the GUI) – 42.0
  • linux kernel – 5.15.0
  • linux-firmware – 20220329.git681281e4
  • QT – 5.13.3 and 6.2.4
  • libc – 2.35
  • gnu gcc – 9.4.0, 10.3.0, 11.2.0 and 12-20220302
  • coreutils – 8.32
  • python2.7 (possible to install) – 2.7.18
  • python3 (default) – 3.10.4
  • perl – 5.34.0
  • apt – 2.4.5
  • cups – 2.4.1

A more complex installation with a dual boot set up could found here – Install Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS on a PC with existing windows 10 – dual boot.

We used the following ISO for the installation process – Ubuntu 22.04 LTS (Jammy Jellyfish):

https://releases.ubuntu.com/22.04/ubuntu-22.04-desktop-amd64.iso

It is a LIVE image so you can try it before installing it. The easiest way is just to download the image and burn it to a DVD disk and then follow the installation below:

SCREENSHOT 1) Select to “Try or Install Ubuntu” and hit enter.

To install Ubuntu from your DVD or USB you must boot from it, so change your BIOS accordingly – first boot devide should be the DVD or USB drive with Ubuntu installation. If you do it successfully you would see the screenshot below.

main menu
Grub2 try install linux

Keep on reading!

Install Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS on a PC with existing windows 10 – dual boot

This tutorial will show the simple steps of installing the latest version of UbuntuUbuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS. Here we present the more advanced setup installation when you have already had installed operating systems, so this installation will add Ubuntu 22.04 LTS to one existing operating system – Microsoft Windows 10 Professional. So there we have 2 hard disks in the system – one is NVME, the other one is an SSD. The installation uses the first disk – “sda” in this case. The SSD has two partitions, which are going to be removed, and a new disk layout will be used for the Ubuntu installation with three partitions – efi, swap and root parititions.
Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS comes with the following software:

  • Xorg X server – 1.22.1.1
  • GNOME (the GUI) – 42.0
  • linux kernel – 5.15.0
  • linux-firmware – 20220329.git681281e4
  • QT – 5.13.3 and 6.2.4
  • libc – 2.35
  • gnu gcc – 9.4.0, 10.3.0, 11.2.0 and 12-20220302
  • coreutils – 8.32
  • python2.7 (possible to install) – 2.7.18
  • python3 (default) – 3.10.4
  • perl – 5.34.0
  • apt – 2.4.5
  • cups – 2.4.1

We used the following ISO for the installation process – Ubuntu 22.04 LTS (Jammy Jellyfish):

https://releases.ubuntu.com/22.04/ubuntu-22.04-desktop-amd64.iso

It is a LIVE image so you can try it before installing it. The easiest way is just to download the image and burn it to a DVD disk and then follow the installation below:

SCREENSHOT 1) Boot from the DVD or USB flash drive to install the Ubuntu 22.04 LTS.

main menu
UEFI DVD boot install

Keep on reading!

Installation of base Ubuntu server 22.04 LTS

This tutorial will show you the simple steps of installing a modern Linux DistributionUbuntu server 22.04 LTS edition. Following most of the default options during the setup configuration for simplicity. The installation wizard is very much the same as the Ubuntu server 20.04 LTS – Minimal installation of Ubuntu server 20.04 LTS

Here are some basic data from the default installation setup settings:

  1. Installed packages – ~617 occupying 2.3G of space.
  2. 3 partitions when using automatic patition layout – boot efi, boot and root.
  3. ext4 used for the root parition.

The Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS comes and updates to the following Linux packages:

  • Linux kernel : 5.15.
  • Python : 3.10.4
  • GLibc : 2.35
  • OpenSSL : 3.0.2
  • systemd : 249.11

The most interesting is the version of OpenSSL 3.x in an LTS (Long Term Support) release, which should be pretty stable to be included. Here is more detailed overview of the installed software – Software and technical overview of Ubuntu server 22.04 LTS

We used the following ISO for the installation process – Ubuntu 22.04 LTS (jammy jellyfish):

http://releases.ubuntu.com/jammy/ubuntu-22.04-live-server-amd64.iso

SCREENSHOT 1) Boot from the disk or USB – whatever you made after downloading the ISO file from Ubuntu’s official source.

On the image here the DVD is used to boot in UEFI mode installation.

main menu
boot uefi dvd

Keep on reading!

Starting up standalone ClickHouse server with basic configuration in docker

ClickHouse is a powerful column-oriented database written in C, which generates analytical and statistical reports in real-time using SQL statements!

It supports on-the-fly compression of the data, cluster setup of replicas and shards instances over thousands of servers, and multi-master cluster modes.

The ClickHouse is an ideal instrument for weblogs and easy real-time generating reports of the weblogs! Or for storing the data of user behaviour and interactions with web sites or applications.
The easiest way to run a CLickHouse instance is within a docker/podman container. The docker hub hosts official containers image maintained by the ClickHouse developers.
And this article will show how to run a ClickHouse standalone server, how to manage the ClickHouse configuration features, and what obstacles the user may encounter.

Here are some key points:

  • Main server configuration file is config.xml (in /etc/clickhouse-server/config.xml) – all server’s settings like listening port, ports, logger, remote access, cluster setup (shards and replicas), system settings (time zone, umask, and more), monitoring, query logs, dictionaries, compressions and so on. Check out the server settings: https://clickhouse.com/docs/en/operations/server-configuration-parameters/settings/
  • The main user configuration file is users.xml (in /etc/clickhouse-server/users.xml), which specifies profiles, users, passwords, ACL, quotas, and so on. It also supports SQL-driven user configuration, check out the available settings and users’ options – https://clickhouse.com/docs/en/operations/settings/settings-users/
  • By default, there is a root user with administrative privileges without password, which could only connect to the server from the localhost.
  • Do not edit the main configuration file(s). Some options may get deprecated and removed and the modified configuration file to become incompatible with the new releases.
  • Every configuration setting could be overriden with configuration files in config.d/. A good practice is to have a configuration file per each setting, which overrides the default one in config.xml. For example:
    root@srv ~ # ls -al /etc/clickhouse-server/config.d/
    total 48
    drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Nov 22 04:40 .
    drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 Nov 22 04:13 ..
    -rw-r--r-- 1 root root  343 Sep 16  2021 00-path.xml
    -rw-r--r-- 1 root root   58 Nov 22 04:40 01-listen.xml
    -rw-r--r-- 1 root root  145 Feb  3  2020 02-log_to_console.xml
    

    There are three configurations files, which override the default paths (00-path.xml), change the default listen setting (01-listen.xml), and log to console (02-log_to_console.xml). Here is what to expect in 00-path.xml

    <yandex>
        <path replace="replace">/mnt/storage/ClickHouse/var/</path>
        <tmp_path replace="replace">/mnt/storage/ClickHouse/tmp/</tmp_path>
        <user_files_path replace="replace">/mnt/storage/ClickHouse/var/user_files/</user_files_path>
        <format_schema_path replace="replace">/mnt/storage/ClickHouse/format_schemas/</format_schema_path>
    </yandex>
    

    So the default settings in config.xml path, tmp_path, user_files_path and format_schema_path will be replaced with the above values.
    To open the ClickHouse for the outer world, i.e. listen to 0.0.0.0 just include a configuration file like 01-listen.xml.

    <yandex>
        <listen_host>0.0.0.0</listen_host>
    </yandex>
    
  • When all additional (including user) configuration files are processed and the result is written in preprocessed_configs/ directory in var directory, for example /var/lib/clickhouse/preprocessed_configs/
  • The configuration directories are reloaded each 3600 seconds (by default, it could be changed) by the ClickHouse server and on a change in the configuration files new processed ones are generated and in most cases the changes are loaded on-the-fly. Still, there are settings, which require manual restart of the main process. Check out the manual for more details.
  • By default, the logger is in the trace log level, which may generate an enormous amount of logging data. So just change the settings to something more production meaningful like warning level (in config.d/04-part_log.xml).
    <yandex>
        <logger>
            <level>warning</level>
        </logger>
    </yandex>
    
  • ClickHouse default ports:
    • 8123 is the HTTP client port (8443 is the HTTPS). The client can connect with curl or wget or other command-line HTTP(S) clients to manage and insert data in databases and tables.
    • 9000 is the native TCP/IP client port (9440 is the TLS enabled port for this service) to manage and insert data in databases and tables.
    • 9004 is the MySQL protocol port. ClickHouse supports MySQL wire protocol and it can be enabled by the
      <yandex>
          <mysql_port>9004</mysql_port>
      </yandex>
      
    • 9009 is the port, which ClickHouse uses to exchange data between ClickHouse servers when using cluster setup and replicas/shards.
  • There is a flag directory, in which files with special names may instruct ClickHouse to process commands. For example, creating a blank file with the name: /var/lib/clickhouse/flags/force_restore_data will instruct the ClickHouse to begin a restore procedure for the server.
  • A good practice is to make backup of the whole configuration directory despite the main configuration file(s) are not changed and in original state.
  • The SQL commands, which are supported by CickHouse server: https://clickhouse.com/docs/en/sql-reference/ and https://clickhouse.com/docs/en/sql-reference/statements/
  • The basic and fundamental table type is MergeTree, which is designed for inserting a very large amount of data into a table – https://clickhouse.com/docs/en/engines/table-engines/mergetree-family/mergetree/
  • Bear in mind, ClickHouse supports SQL syntax and some of the SQL statements, but UPDATE and DELETE statements are not supported, just INSERTs! The main idea behind the ClickHouse is not to change the data, but to add only!
  • Batch INSERTs are the preferred way of inserting data! In fact, there is a recommendation of 1 INSERT per a second in the ClickHouse manual

Keep on reading!